Ad blocker interference detected!
Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers
Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.
Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Q Methodology is a research method used in psychology and other social sciences to study people's "subjectivity" -- that is, their viewpoint. Q was developed by psychologist William Stephenson. It has been used both in clinical settings for assessing patients, as well as in research settings to examine how people think about a topic.
The name "Q" comes from the form of factor analysis that is used to analyze the data. Normal factor analysis, called "R method," involves finding correlations between variables (say, height and age) across a sample of subjects. Q, on the other hand, looks for correlations between subjects across a sample of variables. Q factor analysis reduces the many individual viewpoints of the subjects down to a few "factors," which represent shared ways of thinking. It is sometimes said that Q factor analysis is R factor analysis with the data table turned sideways. While helpful as a heuristic for understanding Q, this explanation may be misleading, as most Q methodologists argue that for mathematical reasons no one data matrix would be suitable for analysis with both Q and R.
The data for Q factor analysis comes from a series of "Q sorts" performed by one or more subjects. A Q sort is a ranking of variables -- typically presented as statements printed on small cards -- according to some "condition of instruction." For example, in a Q study of people's views of George W. Bush, a subject might be given statements like "He is a deeply religious man" and "He is a liar," and asked to sort them "from most like how I think about George W. Bush, to least like how I think about George W. Bush." The use of ranking, rather than asking subjects to rate their agreement with statements individually, is meant to capture the idea that people think about ideas in relation to other ideas, rather than in isolation.
The sample of statements for a Q sort is drawn from a "concourse" -- the sum of all things people say or think about the issue being investigated. Since concourses do not have clear membership lists (as would be the case in the population of subjects), statements cannot be drawn randomly. Commonly Q methodologists use a structured sampling approach in order to ensure that they include the full breadth of the concourse.
One salient difference between Q and other social science research methodologies, such as surveys, is that it typically uses many fewer subjects. This can be a strength, as Q is sometimes used with a single subject. In such cases, a person will rank the same set of statements under different conditions of instruction. For example, someone might be given a set of statements about personality traits and then asked to rank them according to how well they describe herself, her ideal self, her father, her mother, etc.
In studies of intelligence, Q factor analysis can generate Consensus based assessment (CBA) scores as direct measures. Alternatively, the unit of measurement of a person in this context is his factor loading for a Q-sort he or she performs. Factors represent norms with respect to schemata. The individual who gains the highest factor loading on an Operant factor is the person most able to conceive the norm for the factor. What the norm means is a matter , always, for conjecture and refutation (Popper). It may be indicative of the wisest solution, or the most responsible, the most important, or an optimized-balanced solution. These are all matters for future determination.
- Adams, R. C. (1983). An evaluation of research replication and market segmentation with Q method: Operant Subjectivity Vol 6(4) Jul 1983, 126-139.
- Aguilar, M. L., Kaiser, R. T., Murray, C. B., & Ozer, D. J. (1998). Validation of an adjective Q-Sort as a measure of the Big Five personality structure: Journal of Black Psychology Vol 24(2) May 1998, 145-163.
- Albani, C., Blaser, G., Jacobs, U., Jones, E., Thoma, H., & Kachele, H. (2002). Amalia X's psychoanalytic therapy in the light of Jones' Psychotherapy Process Q-Sort. Philadelphia, PA: Whurr Publishers.
- Alberts, K. S. (1999). Diagnosing decision making groups: Testing the general group dynamics self-administered Q-sort (GDS) using faculty and administrative groups from Oberlin College. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Alberts, K. S., & Ankenmann, B. (2001). Simulating Pearson's and Spearman's correlations in Q-sorts using Excel: Social Science Computer Review Vol 19(2) Sum 2001, 221-226.
- Allcorn, S. F. (1989). An inquiry into the unconscious aspects of roles, role expectations and role performance in institutions of higher learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Anandarajan, M., Paravastu, N., & Simmers, C. A. (2006). Perceptions of Personal Web Usage in the Workplace: A Q-Methodology Approach: CyberPsychology & Behavior Vol 9(3) Jun 2006, 325-335.
- Arnio, R. H. (1980). WISC-R profile patterns of learning disabled children: A Q-analysis: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Ascher, W. (1987). Subjectivity and the policy sciences: Operant Subjectivity Vol 10(3) Apr 1987, 73-80.
- Asendorpf, J. B., & van Aken, M. A. (1999). Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontroleed personality prototypes in childhood: Replicability, predictive power, and the trait-type issue: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 77(4) Oct 1999, 815-832.
- Bambery, M., Porcerelli, J. H., & Ablon, J. S. (2007). Measuring psychotherapy process with the Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-set (APQ): Development and applications for training: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training Vol 44(4) Dec 2007, 405-422.
- Barchak, L. J. (1984). Discovering communication paradigms with Q methodology: Ferment or sour grapes? : Operant Subjectivity Vol 7(4) Jul 1984, 115-130.
- Bengston, P. L., & Grotevant, H. D. (1999). The individuality and connectedness Q-sort: A measure for assessing individuality and connectedness in dyadic relationships: Personal Relationships Vol 6(2) Jun 1999, 213-225.
- Bennun, I., Chalkley, A. J., & Donnelly, M. (1987). Research applications of Shapiro's personal questionnaire in marital therapy: Journal of Family Therapy Vol 9(2) May 1987, 131-144.
- Bielawiec, A. (1981). Some suggestions concerning calculations in the Q-sort technique: Przeglad Psychologiczny Vol 24(2) 1981, 369-376.
- Block, J. (2008). The California Adult Q-set descriptors: Criticisms and rejoinders. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, J. (2008). The California Q-sort procedure described and demonstrated. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, J. (2008). California Q-sort psychometrics. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, J. (2008). California Q-sort research applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, J. (2008). Developing the California Adult Q-set descriptors. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, J. (2008). On the process of characterizing a person by the California Q-sort method. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, J. (2008). A perspective on subjective person evaluations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, J. (2008). The Q-sort in character appraisal: Encoding subjective impressions of persons quantitatively. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, J. (2008). Q-sort methodology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, J. (2008). A salmagundi of Q and a salutation to Stephenson. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Block, S. D. (1994). A medical education Q-sort: Applications in medical education research: Academic Medicine Vol 69(5) May 1994, 343-345.
- Bracken, S. S., & Fischel, J. E. (2006). Assessment of preschool classroom practices: Application of Q-sort methodology: Early Childhood Research Quarterly Vol 21(4) 2006, 417-430.
- Briggs, P. F., & Wirt, R. D. (1960). Intra-Q deck relationships as influences and realities in personality assessment: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 24(1) Feb 1960, 61-66.
- Brown, S. R. (1977). Q bibliographic update: A continuation of "Bibliography on Q technique and its methodology." Operant Subjectivity Vol 1(1) Oct 1977, 17-26.
- Brown, S. R. (1978). The importance of factors in Q methodology: Statistical and theoretical considerations: Operant Subjectivity Vol 1(4) Jul 1978, 117-129.
- Brown, S. R. (1985). Comment on "A new Q too?" Operant Subjectivity Vol 8(2) Jan 1985, 54-62.
- Brown, S. R. (2003). Preconception and realisation: A constant conjunction of theory and measurement. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
- Buckley, M. E., Klein, D. N., Durbin, C. E., Hayden, E. P., & Moerk, K. C. (2002). Development and validation of a q-sort procedure to assess temperament and behavior in preschool-age children: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Vol 31(4) Dec 2002, 525-539.
- Burger, G. K., & Rimoldi, H. J. A. (1997). Using person factors to determine variable factors: An application with the MMPI: Interdisciplinaria Revista de Psicologia y Ciencias Afines Vol 14(1-2) 1997, 81-91.
- Burns, E., & Jenkins, E. (1975). Stability of Q-sorts in assessing descriptions of hyperactivity: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 40(3) Jun 1975, 694.
- Busch-Rossnagel, N. A., Fracasso, M. P., & Vargas, M. (1994). Reliability and validity of a Q-sort measure of attachment security in Hispanic infants: Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences Vol 16(3) Aug 1994, 240-254.
- Caldwell, D. F., & O'Reilly, C. A. (1990). Measuring person-job fit with a profile-comparison process: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 75(6) Dec 1990, 648-657.
- Calvin, A. D. (1955). "An adjustment score for Q-sorts": Comment: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 2(2) Sum 1955, 154.
- Carlson, J. M., & Williams, T. (1993). Perspectives on the seriousness of crimes: Social Science Research Vol 22(2) Jun 1993, 190-207.
- Carr, S. C. (1992). A primer on the use of Q-technique factor analysis: Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development Vol 25(3) Oct 1992, 133-138.
- Caspi, A., Block, J., Block, J. H., Klopp, B., & et al. (1993). A "common-language" version of the California Child Q-Set for Personality Assessment: Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry & Child Development 1993, 123-149.
- Caspi, A., Block, J., Block, J. H., Klopp, B., Lynam, D., Moffitt, T. E., et al. (1992). A "common-language" version of the California Child Q-Set for personality assessment: Psychological Assessment Vol 4(4) Dec 1992, 512-523.
- Cassibba, R., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & D'Odorico, L. (2000). Attachment and play in child care centres: Reliability and validity of the Attachment Q-sort for mothers and professional caregivers in Italy: International Journal of Behavioral Development Vol 24(2) Jun 2000, 241-255.
- Chatterji, S., & Mukerjee, M. (1986). Isolation of profile pattern of successful individuals using cluster analysis and Q-technique: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 28(4) 1986, 161-167.
- Cohen, J. (1957). An aid in the computation of correlations based on Q sorts: Psychological Bulletin Vol 54(2) Mar 1957, 138-139.
- Comunian, A. L. (1996). The relation between observed and perceived family structures: An integrative model: Psychological Reports Vol 78(1) Feb 1996, 67-75.
- Coogan, J., Dancey, C. P., & Attree, E. A. (2006). WebCT: A useful support tool for psychology undergraduates - a Q methodological study: Psychology Learning & Teaching Vol 5(1) 2006, 61-66.
- Cottle, C. E., & McKeown, B. (1980). The forced-free distinction in Q technique: A note on unused categories in the Q sort continuum: Operant Subjectivity Vol 3(2) Jan 1980, 58-63.
- Creaser, J. W. (1978). The factor-wheel method of rotation for Q-technique research: Operant Subjectivity Vol 1(3) Apr 1978, 70-77.
- Curtiss, J. B., & Goldberg, A. (1964). Q-sort: Road to improved rehabilitation programs: Journal of Rehabilitation 30(4) 1964, 46-47.
- Danback, K. F. (2006). The therapeutic interaction and how it effects mentalization. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Davidson, K., & MacGregor, M. W. (1996). Reliability of an idiographic Q-sort measure of defense mechanisms: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 66(3) Jun 1996, 624-639.
- Dell, P., & Korotana, O. (2000). Accounting for domestic violence: A Q methodological study: Violence Against Women Vol 6(3) Mar 2000, 286-310.
- Dennis, K. E. (1986). Q methodology: Relevance and application to nursing research: Advances in Nursing Science Vol 8(3) Apr 1986, 6-17.
- Dibb, G. S., & Alexander, B. K. (1977). An automated procedure for correlation of Q-sorts: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 45(3, Pt 2) Dec 1977, 1264-1266.
- D'Odorico, L., Cassibba, R., & Carli, L. (2003). Dyadic Relationships Q-sort: An observative instrument to evaluate friendship's relations in pre-school age: Eta Evolutiva No 75(1) 2003, 79-87.
- Dollinger, S. J. (1992). Idiographic and nomothetic child assessment: Convergence between the California Child Q-Sort and the Personality Inventory for Children: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 13(5) May 1992, 585-590.
- Dosajh, N. L. (1970). Impact of counselling on personality pattern: Indian Journal of Psychometry & Education Vol 1(1-2) Jul 1970, 33-36.
- Dunlap, W. R. (1978). A FORTRAN computer program for Q sort calculations: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 38(1) Spr 1978, 195-196.
- Dupont, P. D. (1990). The Kohutian Q-sort: Reliability and validity studies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Dyer, J. F. P. (1997). The psychological assessment Q-sort: Studies of its psychometric properties and value as a clinically descriptive measure. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Dymond, R. (1953). An adjustment score for Q sorts: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 17(5) Oct 1953, 339-342.
- Eisenthal, S. (1973). Evaluation of a community mental health role using a structured Q sort: Community Mental Health Journal Vol 9(1) Spr 1973, 25-33.
- Eva, K., & Miclea, M. (2006). The influence of global meaning systems on stress-related reactions revealed through proverbs using Q methodology: Cognitie Creier Comportament Vol 10(4) Dec 2006, 607-623.
- Febbraro, A. R. (1995). On the epistemology, metatheory, and ideology of Q methodology: A critical analysis. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
- Felkins, P. K. (1976). Perceptions of J. F. K.: Image and myth: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Flathman, M. (1999). Perspectives on delayed memories: A Q-methodological study: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training Vol 36(3) Fal 1999, 236-246.
- Flitcroft, A., James, I. A., Freeston, M., & Wood-Mitchell, A. (2007). Determining what is important in a good formulation: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy Vol 35(3) Jul 2007, 325-333.
- Fowler, K. A., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2007). The Psychopathy Q-Sort: Construct Validity Evidence in a Nonclinical Sample: Assessment Vol 14(1) Mar 2007, 75-79.
- Gibson, D. E. (1989). A Q-analysis of interpersonal trust in the nurse-client relationship: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Goldsmith, L. A. (1993). Q-sorting the borderline personality: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Goodling, R., & Guthrie, G. M. (1956). Some practical considerations in Q-sort item selection: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 3(1) Spr 1956, 70-72.
- Gould, P. (1985). A new Q too? : Operant Subjectivity Vol 8(2) Jan 1985, 42-53.
- Green, B. F. (1980). Note on Bem and Funder's scheme for scoring Q sorts: Psychological Review Vol 87(2) Mar 1980, 212-214.
- Guertin, W. H. (1973). SORTO: Factor analyzing Q sorts of Kelly's personal construct productions: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 37(1) Feb 1973, 69-77.
- Hauser, S. T. (2005). The Legacy of Enrico Jones: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 53(2) Spr 2005, 535-540.
- Haviland, M. G., & Reise, S. P. (1996). A California Q-set alexithymia prototype and its relationship to ego-control and ego-resiliency: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 41(6) Dec 1996, 597-608.
- Hayslip, B. (1984). Idiographic assessment of the self in the aged: A case for the use of the Q-sort: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 20(4) 1984-1985, 293-311.
- Hellgren, R. K. (1984). Construct validation of the Gestalt Q Sort: An R-method approach: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Hilden, A. H. (1958). Q-sort correlation: Stability and random choice of statements: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 22(1) Feb 1958, 45-50.
- Iliescu, D., & Tanculescu, L. (2005). Q methodology in personnel selection based on the evaluation of prospective employees' fit with the cultural profile of the organization: Psihologia Resurselor Umane Revista Asociatiei de Psihologie Indusstriala si Organizationala Vol 3(2) 2005, 47-54.
- Jacobson, H. L. (1990). A re-analysis of Block's personality typologies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Jones, E. E., Cumming, J. D., & Pulos, S. M. (1993). Tracing clinical themes across phases of treatment by a Q-set. New York, NY: Basic Books.
- Josephson, T. K., & Unruh, W. R. (1994). The Q-sort assessment of personality and implications for treatment in child welfare and young offender settings: Residential Treatment for Children & Youth Vol 12(1) 1994, 73-84.
- Kavanaugh, A. E. (1998). African American clinical psychologists' Q-sort conceptualization of optimal mental health. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Kerpelman, J. L. (2006). Using Q Methodology to Study Possible Selves. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
- Kitzinger, C. (1999). Research subjectivity and diversity: Q-methodology in feminist psychology: Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol 23(2) Jun 1999, 267-276.
- Kitzinger, C., & Rogers, R. S. (1985). A Q-methodological study of lesbian identities: European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 15(2) Apr-Jun 1985, 167-187.
- Kleban, M. H. (1979). Q-technique methodology in the study of healthy aged men: I: Experimental Aging Research Vol 5(2) Apr 1979, 109-135.
- Knight, M., Frederickson, W. A., & Martin, S. A. (1987). Q methodology and the measurement of self perception: Operant Subjectivity Vol 10(4) Jul 1987, 114-124.
- Kondo-Ikemura, K., & Waters, E. (1995). Maternal behavior and infant security in Old World monkeys: Conceptual issues and a methodological bridge between human and nonhuman primate research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development Vol 60(2-3) 1995, 97-110.
- Kowert, P. A. (1996). Where does the buck stop?: Assessing the impact of presidential personality: Political Psychology Vol 17(3) Sep 1996, 421-452.
- Kremen, A. M., & Block, J. (2002). Absorption: Construct explication by Q-sort assessments of personality: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 36(3) Jun 2002, 252-259.
- Lacharite, C., LaFreniere, P. J., & Bigras, M. (1991). The elaboration and the concomitant validation of the Q-Sort for evaluating marital relations: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des Sciences du comportement Vol 23(2) Apr 1991, 159-173.
- Lawton, J. T., & et al. (1983). A Q-Sort assessment of parents' beliefs about parenting in six midwestern states: Infant Mental Health Journal Vol 4(4) Win 1983, 344-351.
- Lee, J.-w. (1977). Computing correlations with Q-sort data for McQuitty's pattern-analytic methods: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 37(2) Sum 1977, 327-329.
- Leon Garcia, O. G., & Vizcarro Cuarch, C. (1985). Psychometrical considerations concerning the Q-sort technique: Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada Vol 40(2) 1985, 243-253.
- Livson, N. H., & Nichols, T. F. (1956). Discrimination and reliability in Q-sort personality descriptions: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 52(2) Mar 1956, 159-165.
- Lorr, M. (1978). The structure of the California Q-Set: Multivariate Behavioral Research Vol 13(4) Oct 1978, 387-393.
- Luborsky, L., Crits-Christoph, P., & Mellon, J. (1986). Advent of objective measures of the transference concept: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 54(1) Feb 1986, 39-47.
- Mallory, M. E. (1989). Q-sort definition of ego identity status: Journal of Youth and Adolescence Vol 18(4) Aug 1989, 399-412.
- McCauley, J. D., & Frank, R. G. (1983). Physician concern over medication intake: A simple measure of medication use: Pain Vol 16(4) Aug 1983, 385-389.
- McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., & Busch, C. M. (1986). Evaluating comprehensiveness in personality systems: The California Q-Set and the five-factor model: Journal of Personality Vol 54(2) Jun 1986, 430-446.
- McCrae, R. R., Terracciano, A., Costa, P. T., Jr., & Ozer, D. J. (2006). From Types to Typological Thinking: A Reply to Asendorpf: European Journal of Personality Vol 20(1) Jan 2006, 49-51.
- McKeown, B., & Thomas, D. (1988). Q methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- McKeown, B. F. (1984). Q methodology in political psychology: Theory and technique in psychoanalytic applications: Political Psychology Vol 5(3) Sep 1984, 415-436.
- McNemar, Q. (1954). Review of The study of behavior: Psychological Bulletin Vol 51(5) Sep 1954, 527-528.
- Midgley, B. D. (2001). The empirical analysis of subjective behavior: Behaviorism, Q methodology, and the nature-nurture dichotomy. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Miller, M. J. (1987). Lazarus's BASIC ID: Making initial client assessments using Q-sorts: Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development Vol 25(3) Mar 1987, 104-111.
- Moss, H. A., Brouwers, P., Wolters, P. L., Wiener, L., & et al. (1994). The development of a Q-sort behavioral rating procedure for pediatric HIV patients: Journal of Pediatric Psychology Vol 19(1) Feb 1994, 27-46.
- Munoz de Visco, N., & Barbenza, C. M. (1997). Adaptation of the California Q-Set@Form III for personality assessment: Interdisciplinaria Revista de Psicologia y Ciencias Afines Vol 14(1-2) 1997, 47-60.
- Nahinsky, I. D. (1965). The analysis of variance of Q sort data: Journal of Experimental Education 34(1) 1965, 66-72.
- Nielsen, R. D. (1993). Development of the family functioning Q-sort: Testetest reliability and predictive validity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Nielsen, R. D. (1993). Development of the family functioning Q-sort: Test-retest reliability and predictive validity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Nitzberg, M. C. (1980). Development of modified Q-sort instrument to measure priorities adolescent places on developmental tasks: Adolescence Vol 15(59) 1980, 501-508.
- No authorship, i. (1985). A note on "testing" psychological types: Operant Subjectivity Vol 9(1) Oct 1985, 29-35.
- No authorship, i. (1987). Reliable schematics: Operant Subjectivity Vol 10(3) Apr 1987, 81-86.
- No authorship, i. (1989). Review of Q Methodology: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 34 (5), May, 1989.
- O'Shea, L. (1985). Value congruences shaping mankind's future: Operant Subjectivity Vol 9(1) Oct 1985, 8-24.
- Ozer, D. J. (1993). The Q-sort method and the study of personality development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Paganucci, C. (2005). Q methodology: Theoretical introduction and Principal Component Analysis computation example: Testing Psicometria Metodologia Vol 12(2) Sum 2005, 83-98.
- Pease, D., Boger, R., Melby, J. N., Pfaff, J., & et al. (1989). Reliability of the Q-Sort Inventory of Parenting Behaviors: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 49(1) Spr 1989, 11-17.
- Perrudet-Badoux, A. (1986). The use of the Q-sort method in a study of asthmatic patients: Biometrie Humaine Vol 4(3-4) 1986, 1-21.
- Peterson, R. S., Owens, P. D., & Martorana, P. V. (1999). The group dynamics q-sort in organizational research: A new method for studying familiar problems: Organizational Research Methods Vol 2(2) Apr 1999, 107-139.
- Pett, M. A., Vaughan-Cole, B., Egger, M. J., & Dorsey, P. R. (1988). Wrestling meaning from interactional data: An empirically-based strategy for deriving multiple molar constructs in parent-child interaction: Behavioral Assessment Vol 10(3) 1988, 299-318.
- Pierrehumbert, B., Muhlemann, I., Antonietti, J.-P., & Sieye, A. (1995). Validation of a French version of Waters and Deane's Attachment Q-Sort: Enfance No 3 1995, 293-315.
- Pierrehumbert, B., Sieye, A., Zaltzman, V., & Halfon, O. (1995). Between the home and the laboratory: The use of Waters and Deane's Q-Sort for describing the quality of parent-child attachment: Enfance No 3 1995, 277-291.
- Pittman, K. P. (1993). A q-analysis of the enabling characteristics of chronically ill schoolage children for the promotion of personal wellness: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Platt, J. S., & Kroth, R. L. (1979). The Behavioral Q Sort as an aid in the responsible modification of adolescents' behavior: Adolescence Vol 14(53) Spr 1979, 241-246.
- Quarter, J., Kennedy, D. R., & Laxer, R. M. (1967). Effect of Order and Form in the Q-Sort: Psychological Reports 20(3, PT 1) 1967, 893-894.
- Ratliff, L. A. (1991). Validation of the Ecological Q-Sort: A self-concept instrument for use with elderly persons: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Redus, K. L. (1983). Development of the Ecological Q-sort: A self concept instrument for use with the elderly: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Reise, S. P., & Oliver, C. J. (1994). Development of a California Q-set indicator of primary psychopathy: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 62(1) Feb 1994, 130-144.
- Reise, S. P., & Wink, P. (1995). Psychological implications of the Psychopathy Q-Sort: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 65(2) Oct 1995, 300-312.
- Rozsnafszky, J. (1981). The relationship of level of ego development to Q-sort personality ratings: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 41(1) Jul 1981, 99-120.
- Sachs, J. (2000). Using a small sample Q sort to identify item groups: Psychological Reports Vol 86(1) Feb 2000, 287-294.
- Schwartz, S. H. (1978). Reflections on a Q dissertation and its opposition: Operant Subjectivity Vol 1(3) Apr 1978, 78-94.
- Sell, D. K., & Craig, R. B. (1983). The use of Q methodology to investigate attitude change in American students who participate in foreign study programs: A review of the literature: Operant Subjectivity Vol 7(1) Oct 1983, 14-29.
- Shattuck, J. B. (1986). The relationship of sorting activities to the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Picture Completion Task: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Shedler, J., & Westen, D. (1998). Refining the measurement of Axis II: A Q-sort procedure for assessing personality pathology: Assessment Vol 5(4) Dec 1998, 333-353.
- Sherman, J. E. (1986). The development of a tool to measure helpful coping behaviors in women whose husbands are acutely critically ill: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation among school-age children: The development and validation of a new criterion Q-sort scale: Developmental Psychology Vol 33(6) Nov 1997, 906-916.
- Snelling, S. J. (1999). Women's perspectives on feminism: A Q-methodological study: Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol 23(2) Jun 1999, 247-266.
- Song, J. Y., Lee, K. S., & Kim, T. L. (1997). The attachment relationships in reactive attachment disorder: Q-sort home observation: Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol 10(2) 1997, 48-59.
- Spitz, J. (1973). Method of ascertaining respondent's opinion of his own family: Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie Vol 69(6) Dec 1973, 372-376.
- Steller, M., & Meurer, K. (1974). On the reliability of the Q-sort method for measuring changes: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 16(4) 1974, 618-624.
- Stenner, P., & Marshall, H. (1995). A Q methodological study of rebelliousness: European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 25(6) Nov-Dec 1995, 621-636.
- Stephen, T. D., & Harrison, T. M. (1986). Assessing communication style: A new measure: American Journal of Family Therapy Vol 14(3) Fal 1986, 213-234.
- Stephenson, W. (1977). Factors as operant subjectivity: Operant Subjectivity Vol 1(1) Oct 1977, 3-16.
- Stephenson, W. (1978). Applications of communication theory: IV. Immediate experience of movies: Operant Subjectivity Vol 1(4) Jul 1978, 96-116.
- Stephenson, W. (1978). Influence of cultural background on test performance: Operant Subjectivity Vol 2(2) Jan 1978, 40-45.
- Stephenson, W. (1978). Old age research in England: Operant Subjectivity Vol 2(2) Jan 1978, 46-50.
- Stephenson, W. (1979). The communicability and operancy of self: Operant Subjectivity Vol 3(1) Oct 1979, 2-14.
- Stephenson, W. (1979). Q methodology and Newton's fifth rule: American Psychologist Vol 34(4) Apr 1979, 354-357.
- Stephenson, W. (1983). Against interpretation: Operant Subjectivity Vol 6(3) Apr 1983, 73-103.
- Stephenson, W. (1983). Against interpretation: III. The single case: Operant Subjectivity Vol 6(4) Jul 1983, 109-125.
- Stephenson, W. (1984). Perspectives on Q methodology: I. Statements of problems: Operant Subjectivity Vol 7(4) Jul 1984, 110-114.
- Stephenson, W. (1985). Perspectives in psychology: Integration in clinical psychology: Psychological Record Vol 35(1) Win 1985, 41-48.
- Stephenson, W. (1985). Perspectives on Q methodology: III. A creative nexus: Operant Subjectivity Vol 8(2) Jan 1985, 37-41.
- Stephenson, W. (1987). Measurement of self perception: Some reflections on the article by Knight, Frederickson and Martin: Operant Subjectivity Vol 10(4) Jul 1987, 125-135.
- Stephenson, W. (1987). Q methodology: Interbehavioral and quantum theoretical connections in clinical psychology. New York, NY, England: Greenwood Press.
- Stephenson, W. (1987). The science of ethics: I. The single case: Operant Subjectivity Vol 11(1) Oct 1987, 10-31.
- Stevens, G., & Gardner, S. (1982). A study of attitudes toward hyperkinesis using Q methodology: Behavioral Disorders Vol 8(1) Nov 1982, 9-18.
- Storey, A. G. (1969). Of Personality and Q Technology: Canadian Psychologist/Psychologie Canadienne Vol 10(4) Oct 1969, 447-455.
- Strayer, F. F., Verissimo, M., Vaughn, B. E., & Howes, C. (1995). A quantitative approach to the description and classification of primary social relationships: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development Vol 60(2-3) 1995, 49-70.
- Sundland, D. M. (1962). The construction of Q sorts: A criticism: Psychological Review Vol 69(1) Jan 1962, 62-64.
- Symons, D., Clark, S., Isaksen, G., & Marshall, J. (1998). Stability of Q-sort attachment security from age two to five: Infant Behavior & Development Vol 21(4) 1998, 785-791.
- Taggart, C. (1987). Hakomi and the Q-Sort Technique: Hakomi Forum Issue 5 Sum 1987, 25-30.
- Tarabulsy, G. M., & Moran, G. (1997). Similarities and differences in mothers' and observers' descriptions of attachment behaviors: International Journal of Behavioral Development Vol 21(3) Sep 1997, 599-619.
- Teti, D. M., & McGourty, S. (1996). Using mothers versus trained observers in assessing children's secure base behavior: Theoretical and methodological considerations: Child Development Vol 67(2) Apr 1996, 597-605.
- Teti, D. M., Nakagawa, M., Das, R., & Wirth, O. (1991). Security of attachment between preschoolers and their mothers: Relations among social interaction, parenting stress, and mother's sorts of the Attachment Q-Set: Developmental Psychology Vol 27(3) May 1991, 440-447.
- Thompson, B. (1980). Comparison of two strategies for collecting Q-sort data: Psychological Reports Vol 47(2) Oct 1980, 547-551.
- Thornhill, B. E. (1986). A Q-analysis of stressors in the primipara during the immediate postpartal period: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Tubergen, N. V., & Olins, R. A. (1978). Mail vs. personal interview administration for Q sorts: A comparative study: Operant Subjectivity Vol 2(2) Jan 1978, 51-59.
- Valter, M. W. (1997). Identification of selfobject functions in group process: A Q-Sort method. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Vereijken, C. M. J. L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Riksen-Walraven, J. M. (2004). Assessing Attachment Security With the Attachment Q Sort: Meta-Analytic Evidence for the Validity of the Observer AQS: Child Development Vol 75(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 1188-1213.
- van Lieshout, C. F. M., & Haselager, G. J. T. (1994). The Big Five personality factors in Q-sort descriptions of children and adolescents. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Van Tubergen, G. N., & Olins, R. A. (1982). Reflections on a test for construct validity in some Q typologies: Operant Subjectivity Vol 6(1) Oct 1982, 22-30.
- Vaughn, B. E., Strayer, F. F., Jacques, M., Trudel, M., & et al. (1991). Maternal descriptions of 2- and 3-year-old children: A comparison of Attachment Q-sorts in two socio-cultural communities: International Journal of Behavioral Development Vol 14(3) Sep 1991, 249-271.
- Vaughn, B. E., & Waters, E. (1990). Attachment behavior at home and in the laboratory: Q-sort observations and Strange Situation classifications of one-year-olds: Child Development Vol 61(6) Dec 1990, 1965-1973.
- Vereijken, C. M. J. L., Hanta, S., & Van Lieshout, C. F. M. (1997). Validity of attachment Q-sort descriptions by mothers: The Japanese case: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 39(4) Nov 1997, 291-299.
- Wampler, K. S., & Halverson, C. F. (1990). The Georgia Marriage Q-sort: An observational measure of marital functioning: American Journal of Family Therapy Vol 18(2) Sum 1990, 169-178.
- Wampler, K. S., Halverson, C. F., Moore, J. J., & Walters, L. H. (1989). The Georgia Family Q-Sort: An observational measure of family functioning: Family Process Vol 28(2) Jun 1989, 223-238.
- Waters, E., & Deane, K. E. (1985). Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development Vol 50(1-2) 1985, 41-65.
- Waters, E., Garber, J., Gornall, M., & Vaughn, B. E. (1983). Q-sort correlates of visual regard among preschool peers: Validation of a behavioral index of social competence: Developmental Psychology Vol 19(4) Jul 1983, 550-560.
- Waters, E., Noyes, D. M., Vaughn, B. E., & Ricks, M. (1985). Q-sort definitions of social competence and self-esteem: Discriminant validity of related constructs in theory and data: Developmental Psychology Vol 21(3) May 1985, 508-522.
- Watts, S., & Stenner, P. (2005). Doing Q methodology: Theory, method and interpretation: Qualitative Research in Psychology Vol 2(1) Jan 2005, 67-91.
- Werner, P. D. (1993). A Q-Sort measure of beliefs about abortion: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 53(2) Sum 1993, 513-521.
- Westen, D., & Harnden-Fischer, J. (2001). Personality profiles in eating disorders: Rethinking the distinction between axis I and axis II: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 158(4) Apr 2001, 547-562.
- Westen, D., Muderrisoglu, S., Fowler, C., Shedler, J., & Koren, D. (1997). Affect regulation and affective experience: Individual differences, group differences,and measurement using a Q-sort procedure: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 65(3) Jun 1997, 429-439.
- Williams, J. E. (1962). Changes in self and other perceptions following brief educational-vocational counseling: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 9(1) Spr 1962, 18-30.
- Wirt, R. D., & Briggs, P. F. (1960). "Intra-Q deck relationships as influences and realities in personality assessment": Erratum: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 24(4) Aug 1960, 374.
- Wojciszke, B., & Pienkowski, R. (1985). Social functioning Q-Sort: Presentation of the method and examples of its application: Przeglad Psychologiczny Vol 28(2) 1985, 527-545.
- Young, D. W., & Klein, A. A. (1992). Family images of the adolescent: An empirical method for clinical assessment: Journal of Family Psychology Vol 6(2) Dec 1992, 139-151.
- Zeldow, P. B., & Bennett, E. (1997). Stability of a Q-sort model of optimal mental health: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 69(2) Oct 1997, 314-323.
- Q Methodology page Includes more information on Q, including tutorials, as well as free software for conducting a Q factor analysis.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|