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Main article: Alexia (acquired dyslexia)

Pure alexia is one form of alexia which makes up "the peripheral dyslexia" group.[1] Individuals who have pure alexia suffer from severe reading problems while other language-related skills such as naming, oral repetition, auditory comprehension or writing are typically intact.[2]

Pure alexia is also known as: "Dejerine syndrome", (after Joseph Jules Dejerine, who described it in 1892,[3] but it should not be confused with medial medullary syndrome which shares the same eponym), "alexia without agraphia",[1] "letter-by-letter dyslexia",[4] "spelling dyslexia",[5] or "word-form dyslexia".[6]

ClassificationEdit

Pure alexia results from cerebral lesions in circumscribed brain regions and therefore belongs to the group of acquired reading disorders, alexia,[1] as opposed to developmental dyslexia found in children who have difficulties in learning to read.[7]

CausesEdit

Pure alexia almost always involves an infarct to the left posterior cerebral artery (which perfuses the splenium of the corpus callosum and left visual cortex, among other things). The resulting deficit will be pure alexia - i.e., the patient can write but cannot read (even what they have just written). This is because the left visual cortex has been damaged, leaving only the right visual cortex (occipital lobe) able to process visual information, but it is unable to send this information to the language areas (Broca's area, Wernicke's area, etc.) in the left brain because of the damage to the splenium of the corpus callosum.[8][9] The patient can still write because the pathways connecting the left-sided language areas to the motor areas are intact.[10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Coslett HB (2000). Acquired dyslexia. Semin Neurol 20 (4): 419–26.
  2. (2001). The eye movements of pure alexic patients during reading and nonreading tasks. Neuropsychologia 39 (9): 983–1002. | title = The eye movements of pure alexic patients during reading and nonreading tasks | journal = Neuropsychologia | year = 2001 | first = M | last = Behrman | coauthors = S. Shomstein, S. E. Black, J. J. S. Barton | volume = 39 | issue = 9 | pages = 983–1002| pmid = 11516450 DOI:10.1016/S0028-3932(01)00021-5 10.1016/S0028-3932(01)00021-5 | accessdate = 2010-07-07}}
  3. Imtiaz KE, Nirodi G, Khaleeli AA (2001). Alexia without agraphia: a century later. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 55 (3): 225–6.
  4. (2005). How to Make the Word-Length Effect Disappear in Letter-by-Letter Dyslexia: Implications for an Account of the Disorder. Psychological Science 16 (7): 535–541. | title = How to Make the Word-Length Effect Disappear in Letter-by-Letter Dyslexia Implications for an Account of the Disorder | journal = Psychological Science | first = Daniel | last = Fiset | coauthors = Martin Arguin, Daniel Bub, Glyn W. Humphreys. M. Jane Riddoch | volume = 16 | issue = 7 | pages = 535–541 | year = 2005| pmid = 16008786 DOI:10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01571.x 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01571.x | url = http://pss.sagepub.com/content/16/7/535.full | accessdate = 2010-07-07}}
  5. (1994). Spelling dyslexia: a deficit of the visual word-form. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 57 (2): 211–216. | title = Spelling dyslexia: a deficit of the visual word-form | journal = Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | year = 1994 | first = E K | last = Warrington | coauthors = D Langdon | volume = 57 | issue = 2 | pages = 211–216| pmid = 8126508 DOI:10.1136/jnnp.57.2.211 10.1136/jnnp.57.2.211 | accessdate = 2010-07-07 | pmc = 1072453}}
  6. Warrington EK, Shallice T (March 1980). Word-form dyslexia. Brain 103 (1): 99–112.
  7. (2006). Developmental and Acquired Dyslexias. Cortex 42 (6): 898–910. | title = Developmental and Acquired Dyslexias | journal = Cortex | year = 2006 | first = Christine M. | last = Temple | volume = 42 | issue = 6 | pages = 898–910| pmid = 17131596 DOI:10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70434-9 10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70434-9 | url = http://www.cortexjournal.net/article/S0010-9452%2808%2970434-9/abstract | accessdate = 2010-07-07}}
  8. Sundsten, John W.; Nolte, John (2001). The human brain: an introduction to its functional anatomy, St. Louis: Mosby.
  9. Baylor Neurology Case of the Month. URL accessed on 2007-06-07.
  10. Nolte, John (2009). The human brain: an introduction to its functional anatomy, St. Louis, Mo: Mosby/Elsevier.


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