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Eye dilate

Pupillary response

Pupillary response or dilation of the pupil is a physiological response that widens the size of the pupil of the eye via the iris dilator muscle. It can have a variety of causes. It may be a reaction to exposure to light.

Or it may indicate interest in the subject of attention or indicate sexual stimulation.[1] The pupils contract immediately before someone falls asleep.[2]

A pupillary response can be intentionally conditioned as a Pavlovian response to some stimulus.[3]

The latency of pupillary response (the time in which it takes to occur) increases with age.[4]

Use of central nervous system stimulant drugs can cause dilation of the pupil.[5]

In ophthalmology, intensive studies of pupillary response are conducted via videopupillometry.[6]


Psychological factors associated with pupil dilation

See also


References

  1. Hess, Eckhard H.; Polt, James M. (5 August 1960), "Pupil Size as Related to Interest Value of Visual Stimuli", Science 132 (3423): 349, doi:10.1126/science.132.3423.349, PMID 14401489 
  2. Lowenstein, Otto; Feinberg, Richard; Loewenfeld, Irene E. (April 1963), "Pupillary Movements During Acute and Chronic Fatigue: A New Test for the Objective Evaluation of Tiredness", Investigative Ophthalmology (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company) 2 (2): 138–157, http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS75010 
  3. (1938). "The Pupillary Response Conditioned to Subliminal Auditory Stimuli". Ohio State University.
  4. Podolak, Edward; Feinberg, Richard (September 1965) ([dead link]), Latency of pupillary reflex to light stimulation and its relationship to aging, Federal Aviation Agency, Office of Aviation Medicine, Georgetown Clinical Research Institute, pp. 12, OCLC 84657376, http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS78702 
  5. Jaanus SD (1992), "Ocular side effects of selected systemic drugs", Optom Clin 2 (4): 73–96, PMID 1363080 
  6. Ishikawa, S.; Naito, M.; Inaba, K. (1970), "A new videopupillography", Ophthalmologica 160 (4): 248–259, PMID 5439164 

Further reading

  • Aboyoun, D. C., & Dabbs, J. M., Jr. (1998). The Hess pupil dilation findings: Sex or novelty? : Social Behavior and Personality Vol 26(4) 1998, 415-419.
  • Ahern, S., & Beatty, J. (1979). Pupillary responses during information processing vary with Scholastic Aptitude Test scores: Science Vol 205(4412) Sep 1979, 1289-1292.
  • Ahern, S. K. (1978). Activation and intelligence: Pupillometric correlates of individual differences in cognitive abilities: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Albert, D. J., & Madryga, F. J. (1980). An examination of the functionally effective spread of 4ml of slowly infused lidocaine: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 29(3) Jul 1980, 378-384.
  • Altman, F., Bernick, N., & Mintz, D. L. (1972). Pupil responses of addicts in treatment to drug culture argot: I. Auditory presentation of double entendre words: Psychonomic Science Vol 28(2) Jul 1972, 79-80.
  • Ambler, B. A., Fisicaro, S. A., & Proctor, R. W. (1976). Temporal characteristics of primary-secondary message interference in a dichotic listening task: Memory & Cognition Vol 41(6) Nov 1976, 709-716.
  • Ambler, B. A., Fisicaro, S. A., & Proctor, R. W. (1977). Information reduction, internal transformations, and task difficulty: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 10(6) Dec 1977, 463-466.
  • Anderson, C. J., Colombo, J., & Shaddy, D. J. (2006). Visual Scanning and Pupillary Responses in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 28(7) Oct 2006, 1238-1256.
  • Antikainen, J., & Niemi, P. (1983). Neuroticism and the pupillary response to a brief exposure to noise: Biological Psychology Vol 17(2-3) Sep-Nov 1983, 131-135.
  • Arundel, G. P. (1974). An exploratory study of pupillary dilation as a measure of difference in attitude of three groups of educators toward orthopedically handicapped children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ashe, J. H. (1978). Efferent control of pupillary dilation: The functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic pupillomotor system in control of spontaneous, evoked, and conditioned pupillary dilation in the cat: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ashe, J. H., Cassady, J. M., & Weinberger, N. M. (1976). The relationship of the cochlear microphonic potential to the acquisition of a classically conditioned pupillary dilation response: Behavioral Biology Vol 16(1) Jan 1976, 45-62.
  • Ashe, J. H., Cooper, C. L., & Weinberger, N. M. (1978). Mesencephalic multiple-unit activity during acquisition of conditioned pupillary dilation: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 3(2) Mar-Apr 1978, 143-154.
  • Ashe, J. H., Cooper, C. L., & Weinberger, N. M. (1978). Role of the parasympathetic pupillomotor system in classically conditioned pupillary dilation of the cat: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 23(1) May 1978, 1-13.
  • Atay, F. M. (1995). A differential-delay equation arising in the modelling of the pupil light reflex. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Atchison, D. A., Scott, D. H., Joblin, A., & Smith, G. (2001). Influence of Stiles-Crawford effect apodization on spatial visual performance with decentered pupils: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 18(6) Jun 2001, 1201-1211.
  • Atchison, D. A., Scott, D. H., Strang, N. C., & Artal, P. (2002). Influence of Stiles-Crawford apodization on visual acuity: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 19(6) Jun 2002, 1073-1083.
  • Backs, R. W., & Walrath, L. C. (1992). Eye movement and pupillary response indices of mental workload during visual search of symbolic displays: Applied Ergonomics Vol 23(4) Aug 1992, 243-254.
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  • Bernick, N., Altman, F., & Mintz, D. L. (1972). Pupil responses of addicts in treatment to drug culture argot: II. Responses during verbalization of visually presented words: Psychonomic Science Vol 28(2) Jul 1972, 81-82.
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  • Bitsios, P., Szabadi, E., & Bradshaw, C. M. (2004). The fear-inhibited light reflex: Importance of the anticipation of an aversive event: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 52(1) Mar 2004, 87-95.
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  • Cassady, J. M. (1996). Increased firing of neurons in the posterior hypothalamus which precede classically conditioned pupillary dilations: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 80(1-2) Oct 1996, 111-121.
  • Chaney, R. H., Givens, C. A., Aoki, M. F., & Gombiner, M. L. (1989). Pupillary responses in recognizing awareness in persons with profound mental retardation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 69(2) Oct 1989, 523-528.
  • Chapman, C. R., Oka, S., Bradshaw, D. H., Jacobson, R. C., & Donaldson, G. W. (1999). Phasic pupil dilation response to noxious stimulation in normal volunteers: Relationship to brain evoked potentials and pain report: Psychophysiology Vol 36(1) Jan 1999, 44-52.
  • Cheung, B., & Hofer, K. (2003). Acceleration effects on pupil size with control of mental and environmental factors: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 74(6) Jun 2003, 669-674.
  • Clarke, R. J., Zhang, H., & Gamlin, P. D. R. (2003). Primate Pupillary Light Reflex Receptive Field Characteristics of Pretectal Luminance Neurons: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 89(6) Jun 2003, 3168-3178.
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  • Coulter, M. L. (1978). Psychosomatic subjects under stress: Comparisons of pupil, heart, muscle, and skin responses: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cymerman, A., Muza, S. R., Friedlander, A. L., Fulco, C. S., & Rock, P. B. (2005). Saccadic Velocity and Pupillary Reflexes During Acclimatization to Altitude (4300 m): Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 76(7,Sect1) Jul 2005, 627-634.
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  • Dabbs, J. M., Jr., & Milun, R. (1999). Pupil dilation when viewing strangers: Can testosterone moderate prejudice? : Social Behavior and Personality Vol 27(3) 1999, 297-302.
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  • Deijen, J. B., Heemstra, M. L., & Orlebeke, J. F. (1995). Pupillometric Assessment of Compensatory Effort in a Memory Search Task under Physical and Pharmacologically induced Suboptimal States: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale Vol 49(3) Sep 1995, 387-396.
  • DeMet, E. M., & Sokolski, K. N. (1999). Sodium valproate increases pupillary responsiveness to a cholinergic agonist in responders with mania: Biological Psychiatry Vol 46(3) Aug 1999, 432-436.
  • Dionisio, D. P., Granholm, E., Hillix, W. A., & Perrine, W. F. (2001). Differentiation of deception using pupillary responses as an index of cognitive processing: Psychophysiology Vol 38(2) Mar 2001, 205-211.
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  • Ferrario, E., Molaschi, M., Villa, L., Varetto, O., Bogetto, C., & Nuzzi, R. (1998). Is videopupillography useful in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease? : Neurology Vol 50(3) Mar 1998, 642-644.
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