Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Pupil (eye)

Talk0
34,141pages on
this wiki
Revision as of 23:38, April 4, 2010 by 130.15.96.35 (Talk)

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


Iris.eye.225px

The human eye
The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). The greenish-brown area surrounding it is the iris. The white outer area is the sclera, the central transparent part of which is the cornea.

Schematic diagram of the human eye en

Schematic diagram of the human eye.

The pupil (Latin pupilla "little doll" > pupa "doll") is the variable-sized, black circular or slit shaped opening in the center of the iris that regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.[1] It appears black because most of the light entering the pupil is absorbed by the tissues inside the eye.

Comparative anatomy

In humans and many animals (but few fish), the size of the pupil is controlled by involuntary constriction and dilation of the iris in order to regulate the intensity of light entering the eye. This is known as the pupillary reflex. In normal room light, a healthy human pupil has a diameter of about 3-4 millimeters, in bright light, the pupil has a diameter of about 1.5 millimeters, and in dim light the diameter is enlarged to about 8 millimeters. The narrowing of the pupil results in a greater focal range. (see aperture for a more detailed explanation)

The shape of the pupil varies betweens species. Common shapes are circular or slit-shaped, although more convoluted shapes can be found in aquatic species. The reasons for the variation in shapes are complex; the shape is closely related to the optical characteristics of the lens, the shape and sensitivity of the retina, and the visual requirements of the species.

Slit-shaped pupils are found in species which are active in a wide range of light levels. In strong light, the pupil constricts and is small, but still allows light to be cast over a large part of the retina.

The orientation of the slit may be related to the direction of motions the eye is required to notice most sensitively (so a vertical pupil would increase the sensitivity of the eyes of a small cat to the horizontal scurrying of mice). The narrower the pupil, the more accurate the depth perception of peripheral vision is, so narrowing it in one direction would increase depth perception in that plane.[2] Animals like goats and sheep may have evolved horizontal pupils because better vision in the vertical plane may be beneficial in mountainous environments.[3]

Many snakes, such as boas, pythons and vipers, have vertical, slit-shaped pupils that help them to hunt prey under a wide range of light conditions. Small cats and foxes also have slit shaped pupils while lions and wolves have round pupils even though they are in the same respective families. Some hypothesize that this is because slit pupils are more beneficial for animals that hunt small prey rather than large prey.[4]

Constriction of the pupil

Template:Contradict-other

The number of the beast

The pupils of sheep and goats are horizontal, almost rectangular, ovals.

When bright light is shone on the eye, it will automatically constrict. This is the pupillary reflex, which is an important test of brainstem function. Furthermore, the pupil will dilate if a person sees an object of interest.

The oculomotor nerve, specifically the parasympathetic part coming from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, terminates on the circular iris sphincter muscle. When this muscle contracts, it reduces the size of the pupil.

The iris is a contractile structure, consisting mainly of smooth muscle, surrounding the pupil. Light enters the eye through the pupil, and the iris regulates the amount of light by controlling the size of the pupil. The iris contains two groups of smooth muscles; a circular group called the sphincter pupillae, and a radial group called the dilator pupillae. When they contract, the iris decreases or constricts the size of the pupil. These muscles are sometimes referred to as intrinsic eye muscles.

Certain drugs cause constriction of the pupils, such as alcohol and opiates. Other drugs, such as atropine and amphetamines cause pupil dilation.

Another term for the constriction of the pupil is miosis. Substances that cause miosis are described as miotic. The pupil opens wide when dark and small when light.

See also

References

  • Adams, A. E. (1977). Functional plans for pupillary reactions and accommodative convergence: Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie und ihrer Grenzgebiete Vol 45(6) Jun 1977, 365-371.
  • Adolphs, R. (2006). A landmark study finds that when we look at sad faces, the size of the pupil we look at influences the size of our own pupil: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Vol 1(1) Jun 2006, 3-4.
  • Alexandridis, E., Leendertz, J. A., & Barbur, J. L. (1991). Methods for studying the behaviour of the pupil: Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 5(3) 1991, 223-239.
  • Artigas, J. M., Felipe, A., & Buades, M. J. (1994). Contrast sensitivity of the visual system in speckle imagery: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 11(9) Sep 1994, 2345-2349.
  • Atchison, D. A., & Scott, D. H. (2002). The Stiles-Crawford effect and subjective measurement of aberrations: Vision Research Vol 42(9) Apr 2002, 1089-1102.
  • Bandelow, B., Muller, P., Kopcke, W., Linden, M., & et al. (1990). Depressive syndromes in schizophrenic patients after discharge from hospital: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience Vol 240(2) Nov 1990, 113-120.
  • Bando, T. (1985). Pupillary constriction evoked from the posterior medial lateral suprasylvian (PMLS) area in cats: Neuroscience Research Vol 2(6) Aug 1985, 472-485.
  • Banks, M. S., & Munsinger, H. (1974). Pupillometric measurement of difference spectra for three color receptors in an adult and a four-year-old: Vision Research Vol 14(9) Sep 1974, 813-817.
  • Bar, K.-J., & Boettger, M. K. (2005). "Comment on the paper: Bar KJ, Boettger MK, Till S, Dolicek J, Sauer H. Clin Neurophysiol 2005;116:790-798": Reply to Fountoulakis et al: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 116(10) Oct 2005, 2505-2506.
  • Bar, K.-J., Boettger, M. K., Till, S., Dolicek, J., & Sauer, H. (2005). Lateralization of pupillary light reflex parameters: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 116(4) Apr 2005, 790-798.
  • Barbur, J. L. (1991). Pupillary responses to grating stimuli: Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 5(3) 1991, 259-263.
  • Barbur, J. L., Moro, S., Harlow, J. A., Lam, B. L., & Liu, M. (2004). Comparison of pupil responses to luminance and colour in severe optic neuritis: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 115(11) Nov 2004, 2650-2658.
  • Bartley, S. H. (1947). The personally determined character of visual response: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 17 1947, 381-387.
  • Beatty, J. (1979). Pupillometry as a Tool for Psychology: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 24 (6), Jun, 1979.
  • Beatty, J. (1982). Phasic not tonic pupillary responses vary with auditory vigilance performance: Psychophysiology Vol 19(2) Mar 1982, 167-172.
  • Beatty, J. (1988). Pupillometric signs of selective attention in man. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Beatty, J., & Kahneman, D. (1966). Pupillary changes in two memory tasks: Psychonomic Science Vol 5(10) 1966, 371-372.
  • Beatty, J., & Lucero-Wagoner, B. (2000). The pupillary system. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Beer, J., & Fleming, P. (1987). Eye color and motor performance in physical education activities in elementary school children: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 64(3, Pt 1) Jun 1987, 963-967.
  • Berlucchi, G., Moruzzi, G., Salvi, G., & Strata, P. (1964). Pupil behavior and ocular movements during synchronized and desynchronized sleep: Archives Italiennes de Biologie 102(2) 1964, 230-244.
  • Bitsios, P., Szabadi, E., & Bradshaw, C. M. (1996). The inhibition of the pupillary light reflex by the threat of an electric shock: A potential laboratory model of human anxiety: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 10(4) 1996, 279-287.
  • Bitsios, P., Szabadi, E., & Bradshaw, C. M. (1998). Sensitivity of the fear-inhibited light reflex to diazepam: Psychopharmacology Vol 135(1) Jan 1998, 93-98.
  • Bitsios, P., Szabadi, E., & Bradshaw, C. M. (1999). Comparison of the effects of venlafaxine, paroxetine and desipramine on the pupillary light reflex in man: Psychopharmacology Vol 143(3) Apr 1999, 286-292.
  • Bour, L. J. (1980). MTF of the defocused optical system of the human eye for incoherent monochromatic light: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 70(3) Mar 1980, 321-328.
  • Bradley, M. T., & Janisse, M. P. (1979). Pupil size and lie detection: The effect of certainty on detection: Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior Vol 16(4) Win 1979-1980, 33-39.
  • Bremner, F., & Smith, S. (2006). Pupil findings in a consecutive series of 150 patients with generalised autonomic neuropathy: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 77(10) Oct 2006, 1163-1168.
  • Brolund, J. W. (1982). An investigation of the proposed relationship between pupillary activity and EEG occipital alpha production across levels of illumination, cognitive task difficulty, and alpha and pupil biofeedback: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Buehren, T., & Collins, M. J. (2006). Accommodation stimulus-response function and retinal image quality: Vision Research Vol 46(10) May 2006, 1633-1645.
  • Burns, S. A., & Elsner, A. E. (1993). Color matching at high illuminances: Photopigment optical density and pupil entry: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 10(2) Feb 1993, 221-230.
  • Calver, R. I., Cox, M. J., & Elliott, D. B. (1999). Effect of aging on the monochromatic aberrations of the human eye: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 16(9) Sep 1999, 2069-2078.
  • Carbon, C.-C., Hutzler, F., & Minge, M. (2006). Innovativeness in design investigated by eye movements and pupillometry: Psychology Science Vol 48(2) 2006, 173-186.
  • Cassady, J. M., Farley, G. R., Weinberger, N. M., & Kitzes, L. M. (1982). Pupillary activity measured by reflected infra-red light: Physiology & Behavior Vol 28(5) May 1982, 851-854.
  • Charman, W. N., & Walsh, G. (1985). The optical phase transfer function of the eye and the perception of spatial phase: Vision Research Vol 25(4) 1985, 619-623.
  • Cheung, B., & Hofer, K. (2003). Acceleration effects on pupil size with control of mental and environmental factors: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 74(6) Jun 2003, 669-674.
  • Cho, A., Iwasaki, T., & Noro, K. (1996). A study on visual characteristics of binocular 3-D images: Ergonomics Vol 39(11) Nov 1996, 1285-1293.
  • Clarke, R. J., Zhang, H., & Gamlin, P. D. R. (2003). Characteristics of the Pupillary Light Reflex in the Alert Rhesus Monkey: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 89(6) Jun 2003, 3179-3189.
  • Cocker, K. D., & Moseley, M. J. (1996). Development of pupillary responses to grating stimuli: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(1) Jan 1996, 64-67.
  • Corpas, I., & de Andres, I. (1991). Morphine effects in brainstem-transected cats: I. EEG and "sleep-wakefulness" in the isolated forebrain: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 44(1) Jul 1991, 11-19.
  • Cox, T. A. (1991). Pupillary and eyelid abnormalities. Boston, MA, England: Butterworth Heinemann Publishers.
  • Davidson, C. M., Pappas, B. A., Stevens, W. D., Fortin, T., & Bennett, S. A. L. (2000). Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion: Loss of pupillary reflex, visual impairment and retinal neurodegeneration: Brain Research Vol 859(1) Mar 2000, 96-103.
  • de Groot, P. J. (1979). Transient threshold increase due to combined changes in direction of propagation and plane of polarization: Vision Research Vol 19(11) 1979, 1253-1259.
  • de Jesus, L. M. (1985). Arousal in relation to the degree of realism in visual stimuli: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Distler, C., & Hoffmann, K. P. (1989). The pupillary light reflex in normal and innate microstrabismic cats: I. Behavior and receptive-field analysis in the nucleus praetectalis olivaris: Visual Neuroscience Vol 3(2) Aug 1989, 127-138.
  • Distler, C., & Hoffmann, K. P. (1989). The pupillary light reflex in normal and innate microstrabismic cats: II. Retinal and cortical input to the nucleus praetectalis olivaris: Visual Neuroscience Vol 3(2) Aug 1989, 139-153.
  • Dodge, R. (1906). Review of Vergleichende Bestimmungen der Peripheriewerte des trichromatischen und des deuteranopischen Auges: Psychological Bulletin Vol 3(3) Mar 1906, 112-113.
  • Drum, B. (1975). Additivity of the Stiles-Crawford effect for a Fraunhofer image: Vision Research Vol 15(2) Feb 1975, 291-298.
  • Enright, J. T. (1980). Ocular translation and cyclotorsion due to changes in fixation distance: Vision Research Vol 20(7) 1980, 595-601.
  • Erichsen, J. T., & May, P. J. (2002). The pupillary and ciliary components of the cat Edinger-Westphal nucleus: A transsynaptic transport investigation: Visual Neuroscience Vol 19(1) Jan-Feb 2002, 15-29.
  • Ferree, C. E., & Rand, G. (1916). A substitute for an artificial pupil: Psychological Review Vol 23(5) Sep 1916, 380-382.
  • Ferree, C. E., & Rand, G. (1932). Relation of size of pupil to intensity of light and speed of vision, and other studies: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 15(1) Feb 1932, 37-55.
  • Ferree, C. E., Rand, G., & Harris, E. T. (1933). Intensity of light and area of illuminated field as interacting factors in size of pupil: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 16(3) Jun 1933, 408-422.
  • Fountoulakis, K. N., Siamouli, M., Fotiou, F., & Kaprinis, G. S. (2005). Lateralization of pupillary light reflex parameters. Comment on the paper: Bar KJ, Boettger MK, Till S, Dolicek J, Sauer H. Clin Neurophysiol 2005;116:790-798: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 116(10) Oct 2005, 2505.
  • Fountoulakis, K. N., Siamouli, M., Kaprinis, G., & Fotiou, F. (2005). Letter to the Editor: Changes in the pupil reflex arc in depressive patients: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 87(2-3) Aug 2005, 341-342.
  • Franklin, C. L. (1899). Untersuchungen zur Pathologie der Pupillenweite und der centripetalen Pupillarfasern: Psychological Review Vol 6(1) Jan 1899, 117.
  • Fukuda, K., Stern, J. A., Brown, T. B., & Russo, M. B. (2005). Cognition, Blinks, Eye-Movements, and Pupillary Movements During Performance of a Running Memory Task: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 76(7,Sect2,Suppl) Jul 2005, C75-C85.
  • Gaebel, W., Ulrich, G., & Frick, K. (1986). Eye movement research with schizophrenic patients and normal controls using corneal reflection-pupil center measurement: European Archives of Psychiatry & Neurological Sciences Vol 235(4) Mar 1986, 243-254.
  • Gagliardi, G. J., Gallup, G. G., & Boren, J. L. (1976). Effect of different pupil to eye size ratios on tonic immobility in chickens: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 8(1) Jul 1976, 58-60.
  • Gambelli, S., Dotti, M. T., Malandrini, A., Berti, G., Serni, G., & Federico, A. (2006). Inclusion Body Myopathy-Like Changes in a Family with Cerebellar Atrophy, Mental Retardation and Abnormal Pupils: European Neurology Vol 56(3) 2006, 172-174.
  • Gardner, R. M., Beltramo, J. S., & Krinsky, R. (1975). Pupillary changes during encoding, storage, and retrieval of information: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 41(3) Dec 1975, 951-955.
  • Garrett, J. C., Harrison, D. W., & Kelly, P. L. (1989). Pupillometric assessment of arousal to sexual stimuli: Novelty effects or preference? : Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 18(3) Jun 1989, 191-201.
  • Gaudreau, L. P. (1991). Event-related brain potentials and pupillary responses using a cognitive task in monozygotic twins: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gavriysky, V. S. (1991). Human pupillary light reflex and reaction time at different intensity of light stimulation (a simple motor reaction to modify the human pupillogram): International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 11(3) Dec 1991, 261-268.
  • Gimranov, R. F., & Gimranova, Z. V. (2006). Pupillary Reactions during Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Human Physiology Vol 32(4) Jul 2006, 492-494.
  • Gislen, A., Warrant, E. J., Dacke, M., & Kroger, R. H. H. (2006). Visual training improves underwater vision in children: Vision Research Vol 46(20) Sep 2006, 3443-3450.
  • Grunberger, J., Linzmayer, L., Grunberger, M., & Saletu, B. (1992). Pupillometry in clinical psychophysiological diagnostics: Methodology and proposals for applications in psychiatry: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences Vol 29(2) 1992, 100-113.
  • Harris, J. P. (1991). The pupil in Parkinson's disease: Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 5(3) 1991, 251-254.
  • Harrison, N. A., Singer, T., Rotshtein, P., Dolan, R. J., & Critchley, H. D. (2006). Pupillary contagion: Central mechanisms engaged in sadness processing: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Vol 1(1) Jun 2006, 5-17.
  • Heal, D. J., Prow, M. R., & Buckett, W. R. (1991). Effects of antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive shock on pre- and postsynaptic !a-sub-2-adrenoceptor function in the brain: Rapid down-regulation by sibutramine hydrochloride: Psychopharmacology Vol 103(2) Feb 1991, 251-257.
  • Herman, L. M., Peacock, M. F., Yunker, M. P., & Madsen, C. J. (1975). Bottlenosed dolphin: Double-slit pupil yields equivalent aerial and underwater diurnal acuity: Science Vol 189(4203) Aug 1975, 650-652.
  • Hernandez, C., Domenech, B., Segui, M. M., & Illueca, C. (1996). The effect of pupil and observation distance on the contrast sensitivity function: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(4) Jul 1996, 336-341.
  • Hertz, G. (1987). Psychophysiological measures of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in sleep apneics, normals and sleep deprived normals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hess, C. W., & et al. (1985). Visual evoked response abnormality in myoclonus epilepsy with large pupils: Occurrence in a family with acorpuscular myoclonus epilepsy: Archives of Neurology Vol 42(4) Apr 1985, 359-361.
  • Hess, E. H. (1965). Attitude and pupil size: Scientific American 212(4) 1965, 46-54.
  • Hess, E. H. (1968). Pupillometric assessment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Hess, E. H., & Petrovich, S. B. (1987). Pupillary behavior in communication. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Hess, E. H., & Polt, J. M. (1964). Pupil size in relation to mental activity during simple problem-solving: Science 143(Whole No 3611) 1964, 1190-1192.
  • Hicks, R. A., Pellegrini, R. J., & Tomlinson, N. (1978). Attributions of female college students to male photographs as a function of attractiveness and pupil size: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 47(3, Pt 2) Dec 1978, 1265-1266.
  • Hicks, R. A., Williams, S. L., & Ferrante, F. (1979). Eye color and the pupillary attributions of college students to happy and angry faces: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 13(1) Jan 1979, 55-56.
  • Hodes, R. (1964). Ocular phenomena in the two stages of sleep in the cat: Experimental Neurology 9(1) 1964, 36-42.
  • Hou, R. H., Samuels, E. R., Langley, R. W., Szabadi, E., & Bradshaw, C. M. (2007). Arousal and the pupil: Why diazepam-induced sedation is not accompanied by miosis: Psychopharmacology Vol 195(1) Nov 2007, 41-59.
  • Hylan, J. P. (1896). Review of Die Aufmerksamkeit und die Funktion der Sinnesorgane: Psychological Review Vol 3(4) Jul 1896, 457-459.
  • Iglesias, I. I. (1994). Pupillary response to noxious electrodermal stimulation in varying conditions of intensity, delay and information. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Ishikawa, S. (1990). Examination of the near triad in VDU operators: Ergonomics Vol 33(6) Jun 1990, 787-798.
  • Jones, Q. R., & Moyel, I. S. (1973). Men's and women's affective response to photographed subjects who differ in iris-color, pupil-size and sex: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 37(2) Oct 1973, 483-487.
  • Juris, M. (1976). A faster and more accurate instrument for digital measurement of pupil diameter: Psychophysiology Vol 13(4) Jul 1976, 363-365.
  • Juris, M., & Velden, M. (1977). The pupillary response to mental overload: Physiological Psychology Vol 5(4) Dec 1977, 421-424.
  • Kaufman, G. D. (2002). Video-oculography in the gerbil: Brain Research Vol 948(2) Dec 2002, 472-487.
  • Kay, C. D., & Morrison, J. D. (1987). A quantitative investigation into the effects of pupil diameter and defocus on contrast sensitivity for an extended range of spatial frequencies in natural and homatropinized eyes: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 7(1) 1987, 21-30.
  • Kimura, E., & Young, R. S. L. (1996). A chromatic-cancellation property of human pupillary responses: Vision Research Vol 36(11) Jun 1996, 1543-1550.
  • Krugman, H. E. (1965). A comparison of physical and verbal responses to television commercials: Public Opinion Quarterly 29(2) 1965, 323-325.
  • Laeng, B., & Falkenberg, L. (2007). Women's pupillary responses to sexually significant others during the hormonal cycle: Hormones and Behavior Vol 52(4) Nov 2007, 520-530.
  • Laeng, B., Waterloo, K., Johnsen, S. H., Bakke, S. J., Lag, T., Simonsen, S. S., et al. (2007). The eyes remember it: Oculography and pupillometry during recollection in three amnesic patients: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Vol 19(11) Nov 2007, 1888-1904.
  • Lavigne, D. M. (1974). Visual sensitivity in seals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Leira, E. C., Bendixen, B. H., Kardon, R. H., & Adams, H. P., Jr. (1998). Brief, transient Horner's syndrome can be the hallmark of a carotid artery dissection: Neurology Vol 50(1) Jan 1998, 289-290.
  • Lichstein, K. L., & Johnson, R. S. (1994). Pupillometric discrimination of insomniacs: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 32(1) Jan 1994, 123-129.
  • Loving, R. T. (1995). Circadian rhythms in the human pupil and eyelid. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lown, J. (2005). Including the excluded: Participant perceptions: Educational and Child Psychology Vol 22(3) 2005, 45-57.
  • Lu, W. (1994). Latency of the pupillary light reflex: Experiments and a neurophysiological model. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Ludtke, H., Wilhelm, B., Adler, M., Schaeffel, F., & Wilhelm, H. (1998). Mathematical procedures in data recording and processing of pupillary fatigue waves: Vision Research Vol 38(19) Oct 1998, 2889-2896.
  • Maison, D. (1997). Influence of implicit stimuli on judgements: Studia Psychologiczne Vol 35(1) 1997, 41-56.
  • Malmstrom, F. V. (1979). Effects of concurrent mental activity on static and dynamic accommodation responses: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Marcos, S., Moreno, E., & Navarro, R. (1999). The depth-of-field of the human eye from objective and subjective measurements: Vision Research Vol 39(12) Jun 1999, 2039-2049.
  • Marek, T., & Noworol, C. (1984). Acceleration in initial phase of pupillary reflex in response to mental load: Polish Psychological Bulletin Vol 15(2) 1984, 143-150.
  • Matsunaga, K. (1973). A new binocular electronic scanning pupillometer: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 16(2) Jun 1973, 115-120.
  • Mattas, R. B. (1975). Some effects of chromostereopsis on stereoscopic performance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Meliksetyan, G., Bourdain, F., Rodesch, G., Condette-Auliac, S., Decroix, J. P., & Graveleau, P. (2006). Pupil-sparing painful oculomotor neuropathy due to a carotico-cavernous aneurysm: Revue Neurologique Vol 162(3) Mar 2006, 378-381.
  • Merritt, S. L., Keegan, A. P., & Mercer, P. W. (1994). Artifact management in pupillometry: Nursing Research Vol 43(1) Jan-Feb 1994, 56-59.
  • Metalis, S. A., & Hess, E. H. (1986). Pupillometric assessment of the readability of two video screen fonts: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 62(1) Feb 1986, 279-282.
  • Morris, R. S., Spencer, J. R., Bruce, R. J., & Johnston, W. L. (1973). Pupil-retina interaction: An analog eye response model: American Journal of Optometry & Archives of American Academy of Optometry Vol 50(11) Nov 1973, 880-888.
  • Munsinger, H., & Banks, M. S. (1974). Pupillometry as a measure of visual sensitivity among infants, young children, and adults: Developmental Psychology Vol 10(5) Sep 1974, 677-682.
  • Murphy, C. J., & Howland, H. C. (1986). On the gekko pupil and Scheiner's disc: Vision Research Vol 26(5) 1986, 815-817.
  • Newman, J. (1992). Pupillometric assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy-cataplexy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Okada, F., Kase, M., & Shintomi, Y. (1978). Pupillary abnormalities in schizophrenic patients during long-term administration of psychotropic drugs: Dissociation between light and near vision reactions: Psychopharmacology Vol 58(3) 1978, 235-240.
  • Ortmann, R. (1972). Orientation study on the dynamics of activation levels: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie mit Zeitschrift fur angewandte Psychologie Vol 180-181(4) 1972-1973, 394-408.
  • Osher, D. B. (2007). Multimethod assessment of deception: Oculomotor movement, pupil size, and response time measures. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Otta, E. (1983). Facial expression and pupil size: Psicologia Vol 9(1) Mar 1983, 19-33.
  • Page, H. E. (1941). The relation between area of stimulation and intensity of light at various levels of visual excitation as measured by pupil constriction: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 29(3) Sep 1941, 177-200.
  • Paivio, A., & Simpson, H. M. (1966). The effect of word abstractness and pleasantness on pupil size during an imagery task: Psychonomic Science Vol 5(2) 1966, 55-56.
  • Papakostopoulos, D., Dean Hart, J. C., & Corrall, R. (1991). Comparison of pupillometry, electroretinography, and pattern visual evoked potentials in diabetics with and without retinopathy: Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 5(3) 1991, 249-250.
  • Partala, T., & Surakka, V. (2003). Pupil size variation as an indication of affective processing: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies Vol 59(1-2) Jul 2003, 185-198.
  • Paulsen, H. G., & Laeng, B. (2006). Pupillometry of grapheme-color synaesthesia: Cortex Vol 42(2) Feb 2006, 290-294.
  • Phillips, M. A., Bitsios, P., Szabadi, E., & Bradshaw, C. M. (2000). Comparison of the antidepressant reboxetine, fluvoxamine and amitriptyline upon spontaneous pupillary fluctuations in healthy human volunteers: Psychopharmacology Vol 149(1) Mar 2000, 72-76.
  • Phillips, M. A., Szabadi, E., & Bradshaw, C. M. (1999). The effects of the novel anxiolytic drug lesopitron, a full and selective 5-HT-sub(1A ) receptor agonist, on pupil diameter and oral temperature in man: Comparison with buspirone: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 13(4) 1999, 391-397.
  • Poock, G. K. (1973). Information processing vs pupil diameter: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 37(3) Dec 1973, 1000-1002.
  • Pressman, M. R., DiPhillipo, M. A., & Fry, J. M. (1986). Senile miosis: The possible contribution of disordered sleep and daytime sleepiness: Journal of Gerontology Vol 41(5) Sep 1986, 629-634.
  • Radhakrishnan, H., & Charman, W. N. (2007). Age-related changes in ocular aberrations with accommodation: Journal of Vision Vol 7(7) 2007, 1-21.
  • Radzius, A., Welch, P., Cone, E. J., & Henningfield, J. E. (1989). A portable pupilometer system for measuring pupillary size and light reflex: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers Vol 21(6) Dec 1989, 611-618.
  • Reeves, P. (1918). Rate of pupillary dilation and contraction: Psychological Review Vol 25(4) Jul 1918, 330-340.
  • Rehkamper, G., Perrey, A., Werner, C. W., Opfermann-Rungeler, C., & Gorlach, A. (2000). Visual perception and stimulus orientation in cattle: Vision Research Vol 40(18) 2000, 2489-2497.
  • Richman, J. E., McAndrew, K. G., Decker, D., & Mullaney, S. C. (2004). An evaluation of pupil size standards used by police officers for detecting drug impairment: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 75(3) Mar 2004, 175-182.
  • Rosse, R. B., Johri, S. K., Hess, A. L., Kendrick, K., & et al. (1996). A measure of pupillary oscillation as a marker of cocaine-induced paranoia: Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences Vol 8(3) Sum 1996, 347-350.
  • Rubin, L. S., & Barry, T. J. (1972). The effect of the cold pressor test on pupillary reactivity of schizophrenics in remission: Biological Psychiatry Vol 5(2) Oct 1972, 181-197.
  • Rubin, L. S., & et al. (1977). Effects of stress on autonomic reactivity in alcoholics: Pupillometric studies: I: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 38(11) Nov 1977, 2036-2048.
  • Sawada, H., Yamakawa, K., Yamakado, H., Hosokawa, R., Ohba, M., Miyamoto, K., et al. (2005). Cocaine and Phenylephrine Eye Drop Test for Parkinson Disease: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 293(8) Feb 2005, 932-934.
  • Schluroff, M., & et al. (1986). Pupillary responses to syntactic ambiguity of sentences: Brain and Language Vol 27(2) Mar 1986, 322-344.
  • Schmid, R., Luedtke, H., Wilhelm, B. J., & Wilhelm, H. (2005). Pupil campimetry in patients with visual field loss: European Journal of Neurology Vol 12(8) Aug 2005, 602-608.
  • Schneider, R. H., Julius, S., Moss, G. E., Dielman, T. E., & et al. (1987). New markers for Type A behavior: Pupil size and platelet epinephrine: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 49(6) Nov-Dec 1987, 579-590.
  • Scinto, L. F. M. (2007). ApoE allelic variability influences pupil response to cholinergic challenge and cognitive impairment: Genes, Brain & Behavior Vol 6(3) Apr 2007, 209-215.
  • Seggie, J., Steiner, M., Wright, N., & Orpen, G. (1989). The effect of lithium on pupillary response to pulses of light in sheep: Psychiatry Research Vol 30(3) Dec 1989, 305-311.
  • Shiga, N. (1985). Pupillary light reflex and female menstrual cycle: Tohoku Psychologica Folia Vol 44(1-4) 1985, 22-32.
  • Shur, E., & Checkley, S. (1982). Pupil studies in depressed patients: An investigation of the mechanism of action of desipramine: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 140 Feb 1982, 181-184.
  • Snyder, A. W., Laughlin, S. B., & Stavenga, D. G. (1977). Information capacity of eyes: Vision Research Vol 17(10) 1977, 1163-1175.
  • Srinivasan, M. V., & Bernard, G. D. (1980). A technique for estimating the contribution of photomechanical responses to visual adaptation: Vision Research Vol 20(6) 1980, 511-521.
  • Steinhauer, S. R., Van Kammen, D. P., Colbert, K., Peters, J. L., & et al. (1992). Pupillary constriction during haloperidol treatment as a predictor of relapse following drug withdrawal in schizophrenic patients: Psychiatry Research Vol 43(3) Sep 1992, 287-298.
  • Stevens, J. C., & Marks, L. E. (1972). Brightness function: Role of the pupil: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 11(6) Jun 1972, 403-405.
  • Strang, N. C., Atchison, D. A., & Woods, R. L. (1999). Effects of defocus and pupil size on human contrast sensitivity: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 19(5) Sep 1999, 415-426.
  • Thibos, L. N., Bradley, A., Still, D. L., Zhang, X., & et al. (1990). Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration: Vision Research Vol 30(1) 1990, 33-49.
  • Thibos, L. N., Hong, X., Bradley, A., & Applegate, R. A. (2004). Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations: Journal of Vision Vol 4(4) 2004, 329-351.
  • Thompson, C., & Checkley, S. A. (1985). The effects of alaproclate on the pupillary responses to tyramine, phenylephrine and pilocarpine in depressed patients: Psychopharmacology Vol 85(1) Jan 1985, 65-68.
  • Thompson, P. (2002). Eyes wide apart: Overestimating interpupillary distance: Perception Vol 31(6) 2002, 651-656.
  • Tombs, S., & Silverman, I. (2004). Pupillometry: A sexual selection approach: Evolution and Human Behavior Vol 25(4) Jul 2004, 221-228.
  • Trejo, L. J. (1982). Analysis of the light reflex of the pupil in the rat by anatomical, electrophysiological and pupillometric methods: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Trejo, L. J., Rand, M. N., & Cicerone, C. M. (1989). Consensual pupillary light reflex in the pigmented rat: Vision Research Vol 29(3) 1989, 303-307.
  • Treloar, A., & MacDonald, A. (1995). Pupillary response to propicamide: Not a simple test for Alzheimer's disease: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 10(11) Nov 1995, 994.
  • Troland, L. T. (1915). The theory and practice of the artificial pupil: Psychological Review Vol 22(3) May 1915, 167-176.
  • Tsujimura, S., Wolffsohn, J. S., & Gilmartin, B. (2003). Pupil responses associated with coloured afterimages are mediated by the magno-cellular pathway: Vision Research Vol 43(13) Jun 2003, 1423-1432.
  • Ukai, K. (1985). Spatial pattern as a stimulus to the pupillary system: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 2(7) Jul 1985, 1094-1100.
  • Varni, J. G., Doerr, H. O., & Robinson, M. G. (1974). Increased psychophysiological variability of the anisocoric individual: A neurological model: Psychophysiology Vol 11(3) May 1974, 304-307.
  • Vermersch, P., Dufourd-Delalande, S., Defoort-Dhellemmes, S., Stojkovic, T., Launay, D., & de Seze, J. (2005). Tonic pupils in Sjogren's syndrome: Revue Neurologique Vol 161(10) Oct 2005, 963-966.
  • Vo, M. L. H., Jacobs, A. M., Kuchinke, L., Hofmann, M., Conrad, M., Schacht, A., et al. (2008). The coupling of emotion and cognition in the eye: Introducing the pupil old/new effect: Psychophysiology Vol 45(1) Jan 2008, 130-140.
  • Walsh, G., & Charman, W. N. (1988). The effect of pupil centration and diameter on ocular performance: Vision Research Vol 28(5) 1988, 659-665.
  • Walsh, G., & Charman, W. N. (1992). Variation in ocular modulation and phase transfer functions with grating orientation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(3) Jul 1992, 365-369.
  • Walter, H., Lesch, O. M., Stohr, H., Grunberger, J., & Gutierrez-Lobos, K. (2005). Reaction to pain stimulus before and during hypnosis measured by pupillary reaction: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 48(2-3) Oct-Jan 2005-2006, 145-152.
  • Ward, P. A., & Charman, W. N. (1985). Effect of pupil size on steady state accommodation: Vision Research Vol 25(9) 1985, 1317-1326.
  • Wastell, D. G., & Kleinman, D. (1980). Fast habituation of the late components of the visual evoked potential in man: Physiology & Behavior Vol 25(1) Jul 1980, 93-97.
  • Watanabe, T., & Oono, S. (1982). A solid-state television pupillometer: Vision Research Vol 22(4) 1982, 499-505.
  • Watson, J. B. (1904). Wie verhalten sich die Helmholtzschen Grundfarben zur Weite der Pupille? : Psychological Bulletin Vol 1(6) May 1904, 205.
  • Weinhold, L. L., & Bigelow, G. E. (1993). Opioid miosis: Effects of lighting intensity and monocular and binocular exposure: Drug and Alcohol Dependence Vol 31(2) Jan 1993, 177-181.
  • Weiskrantz, L., Cowey, A., & Barbur, J. L. (1999). Differential pupillary constriction and awareness in the absence of striate cortex: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 122(8) Aug 1999, 1533-1538.
  • Weiskrantz, L., Cowey, A., & Le Mare, C. (1998). Learning from the pupil: A spatial visual channel in the absence of V1 in monkey and human: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 121(6) Jun 1998, 1065-1072.
  • Wesner, M. F. (1985). The influences of cycloplegic, mydriatic, and miotic drugs on intraocular fluid movement in pigtailed monkeys, Macaca nemestrina: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • White, K. P., Jr., Hutson, T. L., & Hutchinson, T. E. (1997). Modeling human eye behavior during mammographic scanning: Preliminary results: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Part A: Systems & Humans Vol 27(4) Jul 1997, 494-505.
  • Wyatt, H. J., & Musselman, J. F. (1981). Pupillary light reflex in humans: Evidence for an unbalanced pathway from nasal retina, and for signal cancellation in brainstem: Vision Research Vol 21(4) 1981, 513-525.
  • Yasaie, M. M. (1987). A cross-cultural comparison of affective response to differential pupillary size: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ye, M., Bradley, A., Thibos, L. N., & Zhang, X. (1992). The effect of pupil size on chromostereopsis and chromatic diplopia: Interaction between the Stiles-Crawford effect and chromatic aberrations: Vision Research Vol 32(11) Nov 1992, 2121-2128.
  • Young, F. A. (1954). An attempt to obtain pupillary conditioning with infrared photography: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 48(1) Jul 1954, 62-68.
  • Young, F. A. (1958). Studies of pupillary conditioning: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 55(2) Feb 1958, 97-110.
  • Young, F. A., & Biersdorf, W. R. (1954). Pupillary contraction and dilation in light and darkness: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 47(3) Jun 1954, 264-268.
  • Young, R. S., Han, B.-c., & Wu, P.-y. (1993). Transient and sustained components of the pupillary responses evoked by luminance and color: Vision Research Vol 33(4) Mar 1993, 437-446.
  • Young, R. S., & Kennish, J. (1993). Transient and sustained components of the pupil response evoked by achromatic spatial patterns: Vision Research Vol 33(16) Nov 1993, 2239-2252.
  • Young, R. S. L., Kimura, E., & Delucia, P. R. (1995). A pupillometric correlate of scotopic visual acuity: Vision Research Vol 35(15) Aug 1995, 2235-2241.
  • Zerfass, R., Sattel, H., Daniel, S., & Besthorn, C. (1995). Pupillary response to tropicamide: Not a simple bedside test for Alzheimer's disease: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 10(11) Nov 1995, 993-994.
  • Zhang, X., Ye, M., Bradley, A., & Thibos, L. (1999). Apodization by the Stiles-Crawford effect moderates the visual impact of retinal image defocus: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 16(4) Apr 1999, 812-820.

Additional images


External links

Sensory system - Visual system - Eye - edit
Anterior chamber | Aqueous humour | Blind spot | Choroid | Ciliary body | Conjunctiva | Cornea | Iris | Lens | Macula | Optic disc | Optic fovea | Posterior chamber | Pupil | Retina | Schlemm's canal | Sclera | Tapetum lucidum | Trabecular meshwork | Vitreous humour
Sensory system - Visual system - edit
Eye | Optic nerve | Optic chiasm | Optic tract | Lateral geniculate nucleus | Optic radiation | Visual cortex

--> ar:حدقة bn:পিউপিল bg:Зеница ca:Pupil·la da:Pupil de:Pupille el:Κόρη (ανατομία) es:Pupila eo:Pupilo eu:Begi-nini fr:Pupille gl:Pupilala:Pupilla lt:Vyzdys nl:Pupil (oog)no:Pupillpt:Pupila ro:Pupilă ru:Зрачок simple:Pupil (eye) sk:Zrenica fi:Pupilli sv:Pupill yi:אויג אפעל zh:瞳孔 -->

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki