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Puberum dysphonia is the normally voice changes adolescent males undergo due to a sudden increase in the length of the vocal cords due to the enlargement of the Adams apple (thyroid prominence) with puberty. This sudden increase in the length of the vocal cords is due to the sudden increase in testosterone levels found in pubescent males.
This is uncommon in females because their vocal cords do not show a sudden increase in length.
Continuation of a high pitched voice beyond puberty is known as puberphonia.