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In general terms 30-40% of people referred for psychological treatment of various kinds will dropout[1]

Dropouts from dynamic psychotherapyEdit

Dropouts from cognitive behavior therapyEdit

Dropouts from computerised CBTEdit

Main article: Computerised CBT dropouts

Dropouts from drug treatmentEdit

Main article: Drug treatment dropouts


Dropouts from alcohol treatmentsEdit

Main article: Drug treatment dropouts



See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Aubrey, R., Self, R. & Halstead, J.E. (2003) Early nonattendance as a predictor of continued nonattendance and subsequent attrition from psychological help. Clinical Psychology, 32, 6-10

Further readingEdit

  • Aasen, B. A., & Ullebo, S. (1985). Completers and dropouts in a program of combined vocational training and therapy for alcohol and drug abusers: II. Personality, habits of abuse, and social background: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening Vol 22(7) Jul 1985, 370-380.
  • Aasen, B. A., & Ullebo, S. (1985). Completers and dropouts in a program of combined vocational training and therapy for alcohol- and drug-abusers: I. Intellectual and neuropsychological factors: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening Vol 22(6) Jun 1985, 313-318.
  • Abarbanel, A. (1995). Consultation when the patient terminates an impaired treatment: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 55(4) Dec 1995, 347-363.
  • Abel, G. G., Mittelman, M., Becker, J. V., Rathner, J., & Rouleau, J.-L. (1988). Predicting child molesters' response to treatment. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Abel, L. E. (1978). A comparison of techniques in the behavioral treatment of obesity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Abuchaim, S. R. (1982). On re-analysis: Revista de Psicoanalisis Vol 39(1) Jan-Feb 1982, 117-137.
  • Adams, B. J. (1994). An analysis of selected variables affecting attrition from smoking cessation programs. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Agosti, V., Nunes, E., & Ocepeck-Welikson, K. (1996). Patient factors related to early attrition from an outpatient cocaine research clinic: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Vol 22(1) Feb 1996, 29-39.
  • Agosti, V., Nunes, E., Stewart, J. W., & Quitkin, F. M. (1991). Patient factors related to early attrition from an outpatient cocaine research clinic: A preliminary report: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 26(3) Mar 1991, 327-334.
  • Agras, W. S., Crow, S. J., Halmi, K. A., Mitchell, J. E., Wilson, G. T., & Kraemer, H. C. (2000). Outcome predictors for the cognitive behavior treatment of bulimia nervosa: Data from a multisite study: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 157(8) Aug 2000, 1302-1308.
  • Akutsu, P. D., Tsuru, G. K., & Chu, J. P. (2004). Predictors of Nonattendance of Intake Appointments Among Five Asian American Client Groups: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 72(5) Oct 2004, 891-896.
  • Albers, R. J., & Scrivner, L. L. (1977). The structure of attrition during appraisal: Community Mental Health Journal Vol 13(4) Win 1977, 325-332.
  • Alegre-Jurado, C. E. (1977). A dropout study of clients in an individual drug-free outpatient treatment program for drug abusers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Allgood, S. M., & Crane, D. R. (1991). Predicting marital therapy dropouts: Journal of Marital & Family Therapy Vol 17(1) Jan 1991, 73-79.
  • Alterman, A. I., Bedrick, J., Howden, D., & Maany, I. (1994). Reducing waiting time for substance abuse treatment does not reduce attrition: Journal of Substance Abuse Vol 6(3) 1994, 325-332.
  • Alterman, A. I., Kampman, K., Boardman, C. R., Cacciola, J. S., Rutherford, M. J., McKay, J. R., et al. (1997). A cocaine-positive baseline urine predicts outpatient treatment attrition and failure to attain initial abstinence: Drug and Alcohol Dependence Vol 46(1-2) Jun 1997, 79-85.
  • Alterman, A. I., McKay, J. R., Mulvaney, F. D., & McLellan, A. T. (1996). Prediction of attrition from day hospital treatment in lower socioeconomic cocaine-dependent men: Drug and Alcohol Dependence Vol 40(3) Mar 1996, 227-233.
  • Althof, S. E., Turner, L. A., Levine, S. B., Risen, C., & et al. (1989). Why do so many people drop out from auto-injection therapy for impotence? : Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 15(2) Sum 1989, 121-129.
  • Andersen, S., & Berg, J. E. (1997). Rational drop-out from substance abuse treatment as a means to minimize personally felt risk? : Addiction Research Vol 5(6) Dec 1997, 507-518.
  • Anderson, R. A. (1984). Premature termination in day treatment: A comparative study of the outcome of chronic mental patients who drop out: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Anderson, S. A., & et al. (1985). Dropping out of marriage and family therapy: Intervention strategies and spouses' perceptions: American Journal of Family Therapy Vol 13(1) Spr 1985, 39-54.
  • Anderson, T. R., Hogg, J. A., & Magoon, T. M. (1987). Length of time on a waiting list and attrition after intake: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 34(1) Jan 1987, 93-95.
  • Anderson, T. R., & Myer, T. E. (1985). Presenting problems, counselor contacts, and "no shows": International and American college students: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 26(6) Nov 1985, 500-503.
  • Andrews, S. T. (2002). Therapy attrition among child welfare families. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Annesi, J. J., & Otto, L. M. (2004). Relationship Between Number of Exercise Counseling Sessions Attended and Adherence to a New Exercise Program: Psychological Reports Vol 94(3,Pt1) Jun 2004, 907-908.
  • Annesi, J. J., Unruh, J. L., Higgins, L. M., & Knight, C. C. (2003). Preliminary Estimates of Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral Treatment System on Drop-out Rates in Exercise Programs at Three YMCA Facilities: Psychological Reports Vol 93(3,Pt2) Dec 2003, 1025-1031.
  • Araujo, L., Goldberg, P., Eyma, J., & Madhusoodanan, S. (1996). The effect of anxiety and depression on completion/withdrawal status in patients admitted to substance abuse detoxification program: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Vol 13(1) Jan-Feb 1996, 61-66.
  • Archer, J. (1984). Waiting list dropouts in a university counseling center: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Vol 15(3) Jun 1984, 388-395.
  • Arechiga, A. L. (2006). Using the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 in obesity treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Arfken, C. L., Klein, C., di Menza, S., & Schuster, C. R. (2001). Gender differences in problem severity at assessment and treatment retention: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Vol 20(1) Jan 2001, 53-57.
  • Armbruster, P., & Fallon, T. (1994). Clinical, sociodemographic, and systems risk factors for attrition in a children's mental health clinic: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Vol 64(4) Oct 1994, 577-585.
  • Armbruster, P., & Kazdin, A. E. (1994). Attrition in child psychotherapy: Advances in Clinical Child Psychology Vol 16 1994, 81-108.
  • Armbruster, P., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (1994). Sociodemographic characteristics of dropouts from a child guidance clinic: Hospital & Community Psychiatry Vol 45(8) Aug 1994, 804-808.
  • Arnesen, P. E., & Waage, L. (1982). Identifying treatment drop-outs: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening Vol 19(8) Aug 1982, 387-393.
  • Arngrim, T., Munk-Jorgensen, P., & Bjorkbom-Arngrim, T. (1987). Dropouts from out-patient treatment of alcoholism: A comparative study between dropouts and compliers: New Trends in Experimental & Clinical Psychiatry Vol 3(2) Apr-Jun 1987, 147-156.
  • Arnow, B. A., Blasey, C., Manber, R., Constantino, M. J., Markowitz, J. C., Klein, D. N., et al. (2007). Dropouts versus completers among chronically depressed outpatients: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 97(1-3) Jan 2007, 197-202.
  • Arthus, M., Cottraux, J., Mollard, E., Guerin, J., & Bouvard, M. (1997). Cognitive-behaviour therapy in agoraphobia: A retrospective study of 345 cases: L'Encephale Vol 23(4) Jul-Aug 1997, 300-307.
  • Ashing, K. T. (1992). The effect of client and therapist variables on assigning credibility to a therapist and the relationship between credibility and early attrition: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ashurst, J. T. (1983). A Markov model for the treatment attendance of alcoholic patients: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Atkinson, J. M., Douglas-Hall, P., Fischetti, C., Sparshatt, A., & Taylor, D. M. (2007). Outcome following clozapine discontinuation: A retrospective analysis: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 68(7) Jul 2007, 1027-1030.
  • Attride-Stirling, J., Davis, H., Farrell, L., Groark, C., & Day, C. (2004). Factors Influencing Parental Engagement in a Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service: A Qualitative Comparison of Completers and Non-Completers: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 9(3) Jul 2004, 347-361.
  • Atwood, N. C. (1984). Mental health clinics and chronic outpatients: The relationship of service factors to continuation in treatment: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Aurora, E. (2003). Therapy break-off: Discourse on an unpleasant phenomenon in therapy: Musiktherapeutische Umschau Vol 24(1) 2003, 10-18.
  • Ayotte, L., & Renaud, A. (1991). Nonresumption of psychotherapeutic treatment: Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie Vol 12(1) 1991, 2-22.
  • Ayres, A. J., & Mailloux, Z. K. (1983). Possible pubertal effect on therapeutic gains in an autistic girl: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 37(8) Aug 1983, 535-540.
  • Babst, D. V., Ellis, R., & Schmeidler, J. (1976). Testing predictive efficiency of patient classifications for methadone maintenance clients: British Journal of Addiction Vol 71(4) Dec 1976, 359-367.
  • Bachelor, A., Salame, R., Legendre, L., Marceau, G., & et al. (1990). The effect of client and therapist level of experiencing on termination of therapy: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des Sciences du comportement Vol 22(1) Jan 1990, 72-83.
  • Badaracco, M. A. (2007). Keeping our depressed patients in the right treatment long enough for them to get better: Some hopeful findings: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 164(8) Aug 2007, 1136-1139.
  • Bados, A., Balaguer, G., & Saldana, C. (2007). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and the problem of drop-out: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 63(6) Jun 2007, 585-592.
  • Baez Gallo, C., Echeburua Odriozola, E., & Fernandez-Montalvo, J. (1995). Predictive variables in treatment drop out and relapses of pathological gambling: Analisis y Modificacion de Conducta Vol 21(75) 1995, 5-22.
  • Baggett, M. R. (1995). States of Mind as predictors of psychotherapeutic outcome in the treatment of depression. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bailis, S. S., Lambert, S. R., & Bernstein, S. B. (1978). The legacy of the group: A study of group therapy with a transient membership: Social Work in Health Care Vol 3(4) Sum 1978, 405-418.
  • Baird, F. J. (1991). Predictor variables for program completion of hospitalized adolescents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Baity, M. R. (2004). Empirically defining attrition: The search for a standard in practice. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Baldwin, J. A., Bowen, A. M., & Trotter, R. T. (1996). Factors contributing to retention of not-in-treatment drug users in an HIV/AIDS outreach prevention project: Drugs & Society Vol 9(1-2) 1996, 19-35.
  • Ball, S. A., Carroll, K. M., Canning-Ball, M., & Rounsaville, B. J. (2006). Reasons for dropout from drug abuse treatment: Symptoms, personality, and motivation: Addictive Behaviors Vol 31(2) Feb 2006, 320-330.
  • Ballarini, V., & Palena, A. (1983). Self-discharges: A defect, and effect, or a fact? : Psichiatria Generale e dell'Eta Evolutiva Vol 21(1) 1983, 83-90.
  • Bandini, S., Antonelli, G., Moretti, P., Pampanelli, S., Quartesan, & Perriello, G. (2006). Factors affecting dropout in outpatient eating disorder treatment: Eating and Weight Disorders Vol 11(4) Dec 2006, 179-184.
  • Barnett, A. J. (1979). Dynamic factors pertinent to the occurrence of early termination in psychotherapy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barnett, M. H. (1981). The effect of client preparation upon involvement and continuation in psychotherapy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barr, J. E. (1979). A study of relationships between premature termination in group counseling and select client variables: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barrera, M., & Rosen, G. M. (1977). Detrimental effects of a self-reward contracting program on subjects' involvement in self-administered desensitization: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 45(6) Dec 1977, 1180-1181.
  • Barron, P. L. (1993). Relationship of self-efficacy and assertive behaviors to attrition in a domiciliary program for substance abusing homeless veterans: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barros, A. F. (1983). A technique for new members introduction in group psychotherapy: Compromised presentation with the group: Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria Vol 32(2) Mar-Apr 1983, 121-123.
  • Barrow, J. C. (1980). Follow-up of dropouts from developmental programs: A supplemental program evaluation approach: Personnel & Guidance Journal Vol 59(3) Nov 1980, 186-189.
  • Bartolotta, R. M. (1991). Variables related to attrition from a weight reduction program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Baruch, G., Gerber, A., & Fearon, P. (1998). Adolescents who drop out of psychotherapy at a community-based psychotherapy centre: A preliminary investigation of the characteristics of early drop-outs, late drop-outs and those who continue treatment: British Journal of Medical Psychology Vol 71(3) Sep 1998, 233-245.
  • Basan, A., Pitschel-Walz, G., & Bauml, J. (2000). Psychological intervention for schizophrenic patients and subsequent long-term treatment: A 4-year followup study: Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie Vol 68(12) Dec 2000, 537-545.
  • Basoglu, M., Yetkin, N., Sercan, M., & Karaduman, B. (1986). Patterns of attrition for psychological and pharmacological treatment of male sexual dysfunction: Implications for sex therapy research and cross-cultural perspectives: Sexual & Marital Therapy Vol 1(2) 1986, 179-189.
  • Bateman, J. M. (1989). Client dropout as a function of client-therapist interaction in the initial intake session at a CMHC: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Baum, O. E., Felzer, S. B., D'Zmura, T. L., & Shumaker, E. (1966). Psychotherapy, dropouts and lower socioeconomic patients: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 36(4) 1966, 629-635.
  • Bauman, L., Nieporent, H. J., Ferguson, J., Klein, J., & et al. (1988). Demystifying the patient dropout: A study of 122 brief-stay day-treatment center admissions: International Journal of Partial Hospitalization Vol 5(3) Sep 1988, 215-224.
  • Baxter, J. W. (1985). Evaluation of client utilization and attrition at a community mental health center: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bech, P., Ciadella, P., Haugh, M. C., Birkett, M. A., Hours, A., Boissel, J. P., et al. (2000). Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of fluoxetine v. placebo and tricyclic antidepressants in the short-term treatment of major depression: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 176 May 2000, 421-428.
  • Beck, M. (1981). Syndrome of the treatment-rejecting couple: Some considerations regarding fee: Family Therapy Vol 8(3) 1981, 223-228.
  • Beck, N. C., & et al. (1983). Prediction of discharges against medical advice from an alcohol and drug misuse treatment program: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 44(1) Jan 1983, 171-180.
  • Beck, N. C., Shekim, W., Gilbert, F., & Fraps, C. (1983). A cross-validation of factors predictive of AMA discharge: Hospital & Community Psychiatry Vol 34(1) Jan 1983, 69-71.
  • Beckham, E. E. (1992). Predicting patient dropout in psychotherapy: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training Vol 29(2) Sum 1992, 177-182.
  • Beckman, L. J., & Bardsley, P. E. (1986). Individual characteristics, gender differences and drop-out from alcoholism treatment: Alcohol and Alcoholism Vol 21(2) 1986, 213-224.
  • Beer, R. (1992). A preschool child psychiatric service: Predictors of post-assessment default: Child: Care, Health and Development Vol 18(1) Jan-Feb 1992, 1-13.
  • Bein, A., Torres, S., Jr., & Kurilla, V. (2000). Service delivery issues in early termination of Latino clients: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Vol 3(2) 2000, 43-59.
  • Beitchman, J., & Dielman, T. (1983). Terminators and remainers in child psychiatry: The patient-treatment fit: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 44(11) Nov 1983, 413-416.
  • Bell, D. C., Williams, M. L., Nelson, R., & Spence, R. T. (1994). An experimental test of retention in residential and outpatient programs: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Vol 20(3) Aug 1994, 331-340.
  • Belter, K. S. (1993). MMPI-2 assessment in psychiatric and substance use inpatients and as a predictor of program attrition for substance users: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bender, N. J. (1979). An investigation of selected pretreatment characteristics of female alcoholics as related to treatment completion or noncompletion: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Benjamin, A. (1993). Against psychotherapy: From hope to disillusionment: Feminism & Psychology Vol 3(3) Oct 1993, 401-404.
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  • Bennett, G. A. (1986). Expectations in the treatment of obesity: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 25(4) Nov 1986, 311-312.
  • Bennett, G. A., & Jones, S. E. (1986). Dropping out of treatment for obesity: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 30(5) 1986, 567-573.
  • Berden, J. V., & Peters, P. L. (1989). One-sidedly breaking of contact by alcohol clients of the C.A.D.-Limburg: Tijdschrift voor Alcohol, Drugs en Andere Psychotrope Stoffen Vol 15(6) 1989, 222-229.
  • Berg, B. J., & Dhopesh, V. (1996). Unscheduled admissions and AMA discharges from a substance abuse unit: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Vol 22(4) Nov 1996, 589-593.
  • Berg, J. E. (1996). Use of a sense of coherence test and Hopkins Symptom Checklist to predict completion of stay in a postdetoxification counseling unit: The American Journal on Addictions Vol 5(4) Fal 1996, 327-333.
  • Berg, J. E., Andersen, S., & Alveberg, P. O. (1997). Former addicts as members of staff, and type of activity offered to drug misusers. Do these factors influence rate of completion? : Addiction Research Vol 5(1) Apr 1997, 39-48.
  • Berger, H., & Smith, M. J. (1978). Voluntary versus prescribed termination of methadone maintenance: British Journal of Addiction Vol 73(2) Jun 1978, 178-180.
  • Berghofer, G., Schmidl, F., Rudas, S., Steiner, E., & Schmitz, M. (2002). Predictors of treatment discontinuity in outpatient mental health care: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Vol 37(6) Jun 2002, 276-282.
  • Berman, L. B., & Goodrich, W. (1990). Running away from treatment: Observations and admission predictors for hospitalized adolescents. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Bernstein, A., Liegner, E. J., Meadow, P. W., Rosenthal, L., & Welber, D. (1998). Panel discussion on Rosenthal's "Clinical observations on premature termination in group analysis": Modern Psychoanalysis Vol 23(2) 1998, 159-181.
  • Berrigan, L. P., & Garfield, S. L. (1981). Relationship of missed psychotherapy appointments to premature termination and social class: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 20(4) Nov 1981, 239-242.
  • Beshore, J. E. (1988). Female and male outpatients in alcohol and drug treatment: A comparison study of the effects of gender on MMPI scales and treatment completion: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Beyebach, M., & Carranza, V. E. (1997). Therapeutic interaction and dropout: Measuring relational communication in solution-focused therapy: Journal of Family Therapy Vol 19(2) May 1997, 173-212.
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  • Broadwell, G. G. (1996). Premature termination in community mental health: Application of a transtheoretical model. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Brogan, M. M., Prochaska, J. O., & Prochaska, J. M. (1999). Predicting termination and continuation status in psychotherapy using the transtheoretical model: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training Vol 36(2) Sum 1999, 105-113.
  • Brosch, P. H. (1980). Systematic preparation for individual psychotherapy: Its effect on client anxiety, attrition and response to treatment: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brown, D. M., Thorne, J. E., Foster, G. L., Duncan, J. L., Brune, L. M., Munana, A., et al. (2006). Factors affecting attrition in a longitudinal study of patients with AIDS: AIDS Care Vol 18(7) Oct 2006, 821-829.
  • Brown, P. D., O'Leary, K. D., & Feldbau, S. R. (1997). Dropout in a treatment program for self-referring wife abusing men: Journal of Family Violence Vol 12(4) Dec 1997, 365-387.
  • Brown, R. I. (1986). Dropouts and continuers in Gamblers Anonymous: Life-context and other factors: Journal of Gambling Behavior Vol 2(2) Fal-Win 1986, 130-140.
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DissertationEdit

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