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{{Boxbottom}}[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/481834/psychosomatic-disorder Psychosomatic disorders] , also called ''somatoform disorders'', are physical conditions with symptoms (or perceived symptoms) that are manifestations of psychological distress.  These manifestations are identical to its corresponding physiological disorder. A person with a psychosomatic disorder may, for example, experience frequent headaches and be improperly diagnosed with a headache disorder. Indeed, the person suffers from a deeper issue: a psychiatric disorder. This is determined by the health team after all possible organic causes have been eliminated. Psychosomatic disorders may be physical manifestations of anxiety and mood disorders, and especially of stress disorders following psychological trauma. 
A '''psychosomatic disorder''' or '''psychosomatic illness''' is a condition whose symptoms are at least in part caused by mental processes of the sufferer rather than immediate physiological causes. If a medical examination can find no physical or organic cause, if an illness appears to result from emotional or cognitive process such as [[anger]], [[anxiety]], [[depression]] and [[guilt]] then it might be classified psychosomatic. [[Psychosomatic medicine]] is the branch of medicine specializing in these conditions.
 
   
[[DSM-III]] dropped the use of the term reflecting a growing view that the cause or course of most conditions may be affected by changes to bodily systems that may reflect psychological factors. So for example evidence the field of [[psychoneuroendocrinology]] shows how hormonal changes can be affected by psychological circumstances and in [[psychoneuroimmunology]] how these changes may mediate resistence to infections etc.
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The Amercian Psychiatric Association's fourth (text-revised) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV TR), lists criteria for the diagnosis of such a disorder. The criteria are the presence of physical distress (e.g. headache, siezure, gastrointestinal pain, etc.) and that after intensive and sufficient medical investigation, no organic cause is found. The physical presentations must not be due to any external substance such as illicit drugs and abuse of prescription medication. The symptoms must be severe enough to caused marked distress or impairment in normal functioning. The duration of the disorder must bee or have been at least six months and without being intentionally produced. And of course, the symptoms must not be accounted for by any other psychiatric disorder (DSM-IV TR, p. 492).
   
==List of psychosomatic disorders==
 
At various times a broad range of conditions have been regarded as being psychosomatic disorders. By systems involved, these include:
 
   
===Cardiovascular disorders===
 
*[[Hypertension]]
 
*[[Myocardial infarction]]
 
*[[Stroke]]
 
   
===Digestive disorders===
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==<span style="font-size:18px;">List of psychosomatic disorder subtypes</span>==
*[[Colitis]]
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*Somatization Disorder
*[[Ulcers]]
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*Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder
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*[[Conversion Disorder]]
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*[[Pain Disorder]]
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*[[Hypochondriasis]]
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*[[Body Dysmorphic Disorder]]
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*[[Somatoform Disorder]] Not Otherwise Specified
   
===Endocrine disorders===
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==List of symptoms related to Psychosomatic Disorders==
*[[Addison's disease]]
 
*[[Cushing's syndrome]]
 
*[[Endometriosis]]
 
   
   
===Genitourinary disorders===
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===Cardiovascular symptoms===
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*[[High Blood Pressure]]
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*[[Arhythmias]]
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*[[Angina]] (Chest Pain)
  +
  +
===Digestive symptoms===
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*[[Irritable Bowel]]
  +
*[[Acid Indigestion]]
  +
  +
===Endocrine/Metabolic symptoms===
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*[[Hyperpersperia]]
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*[[Weight loss]]/[[Weight gain]]
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*Decreased/Increased [[appetite]]
  +
  +
===Genitourinary symptoms===
 
*[[Dysmenorrhea]]
 
*[[Dysmenorrhea]]
   
===Muscoskeletal disorders===
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===Muscoskeletal symptoms===
*[[Arthritis]]
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*[[Fibromyalgia]
*[[Tension myositis syndrome]]
 
   
==Nervous system disorders==
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===Nervous system symptoms===
*[[Headache]]
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*[[Headache]] (e.g. Migraine, tension, etc.)
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*[[Siezure]]
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*[[Paralysis]]
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*[[Amnesia]]
   
===Respiratory disorders===
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===Respiratory symptoms===
*[[Asthma]]
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*[[Bronchial Spasm]]
 
*[[Dyspnea]]
 
*[[Dyspnea]]
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*[[Asthma]]
   
===Skin disorders===
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===Skin symptoms===
*[[Acne]]
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*[[Acne]]
 
*[[Eczema]]
 
*[[Eczema]]
 
*[[Psoriasis]]
 
*[[Psoriasis]]
   
 
==Causes==
 
==Causes==
These conditions have been investigated in terms of:
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*[[Anthony Feinstein]] (2011) authored a review on the latest research on conversion disorder and the role of neurobiology. In the review, Dr. Feinstein points out that, in brain imaging studies, those with conversion disorder vibratory stimulus to a subject's "paralyzed" limb, normally active brain areas in stimulation to the arm were not active on the side of the brain controlling that arm. Instead, the frontmost areas of the brain were active (the areas controlling anxiety and mood).  This type of paralysis is a physical manifestation of psychological distress and not permanent.
*Their relationship to personality variables
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*It is possible that neurodevelopmental or neuroembryological processes have influence here.
*Their response to psychological stress of varying kinds
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*In those who suffer from post traumatic stress disorder, perhaps the physical symptoms may be inevitably learned.
*Their relationship to lifestyle factors
 
*The impact of psychological factors upon the physical processes known to be associated with the conditions (eg allergies).
 
 
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
* [[Somatization disorder]]
 
* [[Somatization disorder]]
 
* [[Somatoform disorders]]
 
* [[Somatoform disorders]]
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* [[Conversion disorder]]
   
==External links==
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==References==
* [http://nccam.nih.gov/health/backgrounds/mindbody.htm Mind-Body Medicine: An Overview], US National Institutes of Health, Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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# <span style="color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Tahoma,Verdana,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:12.222222328186035px;">Feinstein, A. (2011). Conversion disorder: Advances in our understanding. </span>''Canadian Medical Association Journal''<span style="color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Tahoma,Verdana,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:12.222222328186035px;">, </span>''183''<span style="color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Tahoma,Verdana,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:12.222222328186035px;">(8), 915-919. doi:10.1503/cmaj.110490</span>
* [http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/ Psychosomatic Medicine]
 
* [http://www.mindbodymedicine.com/ Mindbody Medicine]
 
* [http://www.psychosomatic.org/ American Psychosomatic Society]
 
* [http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/aha/umpsysom.htm University of Michigan]
 
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/emotions/psychosomatic.html NIH]
 
* [http://www.uihealthcare.com/topics/mentalemotionalhealth/ment3166.html University of Iowa]
 
 
 
[[Category:Psychosomatic disorders]]
 
   
 
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Latest revision as of 23:34, May 13, 2013

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Psychosomatic illness
ICD-10 F45
ICD-9 306.9
OMIM {{{OMIM}}}
DiseasesDB {{{DiseasesDB}}}
MedlinePlus {{{MedlinePlus}}}
eMedicine {{{eMedicineSubj}}}/{{{eMedicineTopic}}}
MeSH {{{MeshNumber}}}
Psychosomatic disorders , also called somatoform disorders, are physical conditions with symptoms (or perceived symptoms) that are manifestations of psychological distress.  These manifestations are identical to its corresponding physiological disorder. A person with a psychosomatic disorder may, for example, experience frequent headaches and be improperly diagnosed with a headache disorder. Indeed, the person suffers from a deeper issue: a psychiatric disorder. This is determined by the health team after all possible organic causes have been eliminated. Psychosomatic disorders may be physical manifestations of anxiety and mood disorders, and especially of stress disorders following psychological trauma. 

The Amercian Psychiatric Association's fourth (text-revised) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV TR), lists criteria for the diagnosis of such a disorder. The criteria are the presence of physical distress (e.g. headache, siezure, gastrointestinal pain, etc.) and that after intensive and sufficient medical investigation, no organic cause is found. The physical presentations must not be due to any external substance such as illicit drugs and abuse of prescription medication. The symptoms must be severe enough to caused marked distress or impairment in normal functioning. The duration of the disorder must bee or have been at least six months and without being intentionally produced. And of course, the symptoms must not be accounted for by any other psychiatric disorder (DSM-IV TR, p. 492).


List of psychosomatic disorder subtypesEdit

List of symptoms related to Psychosomatic DisordersEdit

Cardiovascular symptomsEdit

Digestive symptomsEdit

Endocrine/Metabolic symptomsEdit

Genitourinary symptomsEdit

Muscoskeletal symptomsEdit

  • [[Fibromyalgia]

Nervous system symptomsEdit

Respiratory symptomsEdit

Skin symptomsEdit

CausesEdit

  • Anthony Feinstein (2011) authored a review on the latest research on conversion disorder and the role of neurobiology. In the review, Dr. Feinstein points out that, in brain imaging studies, those with conversion disorder vibratory stimulus to a subject's "paralyzed" limb, normally active brain areas in stimulation to the arm were not active on the side of the brain controlling that arm. Instead, the frontmost areas of the brain were active (the areas controlling anxiety and mood).  This type of paralysis is a physical manifestation of psychological distress and not permanent.
  • It is possible that neurodevelopmental or neuroembryological processes have influence here.
  • In those who suffer from post traumatic stress disorder, perhaps the physical symptoms may be inevitably learned.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Feinstein, A. (2011). Conversion disorder: Advances in our understanding. Canadian Medical Association Journal183(8), 915-919. doi:10.1503/cmaj.110490
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