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Psychosocial mental retardation

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Psychosocial mental retardation is mental retardation that is due to psychosocial factors. To the degree to which there is no organic cause and the fact that environmental or economic factors are responsible might lead one to suppose that the condition is reversible but this is not always straightforward. The long term effects of childhood abuse and/or parental neglect on intellectual capacity can be difficult to overcome.

AssessmentEdit

TreatmentEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

BooksEdit

  • Greenwood, C. R., Hart, B., Walker, D., & Risley, T. (1994). The opportunity to respond and academic performance revisited: A behavioral theory of developmental retardation and its prevention. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
  • Weisz, J. R. (1990). Cultural-familial mental retardation: A developmental perspective on cognitive performance and "helpless" behavior. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

PapersEdit

  • Anzures, R., Naranjo, C., & Calderon, H. A. (1973). Application of the principles of the experimental analysis of behavior to the rehabilitation of developmentally retarded children: Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia Vol 5(3) 1973, 325-354.
  • Bijou, S. W., & Dunitz-Johnson, E. (1981). Interbehavior analysis of developmental retardation: Psychological Record Vol 31(3) Sum 1981, 305-329.
  • Blackie, J., Forrest, A., & Witcher, G. (1975). Subcultural mental handicap: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 127 Dec 1975, 535-539.
  • Bruhl, H. H., Foni, J., Lee, Y. H., & Madow, A. (1987). Plasma concentrations of magnesium, lead, lithium, copper, and zinc in mentally retarded persons: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 92(1) Jul 1987, 103-111.
  • Czeizel, A., & et al. (1980). Etiological study of mental retardation in Budapest, Hungary: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 85(2) Sep 1980, 120-128.
  • Deich, R. F. (1973). Shifts in conceptual thinking by organically and familial retarded adolescents and adults: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 78(1) Jul 1973, 59-62.
  • Deiss de Farias, D., Adrados Ruiz, I., & Chagas Nogueira, I. T. (1980). The Rorschach technique as an instrument for investigating the personality in order to evaluate the resources of the exceptional mentally deficient child: Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia Vol 32(2) Apr-Jun 1980, 73-92.
  • Dumas-Menguy, Y., & Baillon, J. (1975). Mental deficiency and social cases: A study of the intellectual level of 575 children at the Bouches-du-Rhone departmental children's center: Revue de Neuropsychiatrie Infantile et d'Hygiene Mentale de l'Enfance Vol 23(8-9) Aug-Sep 1975, 591-618.
  • Gordon, B., & Saklofske, D. H. (1994). New approaches to the developmental-difference debate: Developmental Disabilities Bulletin Vol 22(1) 1994, 54-72.
  • Gordon, J. E. (1972). Intellectual potential in mentally retarded persons: Effect of stimulus enrichment on verbal abstraction and verbal learning: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Gorton, C. E. (1972). The effects of various classroom environments on performance of a mental task by mentally retarded and normal children: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 7(1) Feb 1972, 32-38.
  • Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Hart, B., Thurston, L. P., & et al. (1989). A behavioral approach to research on psychosocial retardation: Education & Treatment of Children Vol 12(4) Nov 1989, 330-346.
  • Groff, M. G., & Linden, K. W. (1982). The WISC-R factor score profiles of cultural-familial mentally retarded and nonretarded youth: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 87(2) Sep 1982, 147-152.
  • Gruen, G. E., & Berg, B. (1973). Visual discrimination learning in familial retarded and nonretarded children: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 78(1) Jul 1973, 63-69.
  • Gruen, G. E., & Korte, J. (1973). Information processing in familially retarded and nonretarded children: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 78(1) Jul 1973, 82-88.
  • Harris, G. J., & Fleer, R. E. (1974). High speed memory scanning in mental retardates: Evidence for a central processing deficit: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 17(3) Jun 1974, 452-459.
  • Kahn, J. V. (1983). Moral reasoning of Piagetian-matched retarded and nonretarded children and adolescents: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 143(1) Sep 1983, 69-77.
  • Kahn, J. V. (1985). Evidence of the similar-structure hypothesis controlling for organicity: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 89(4) Jan 1985, 372-378.
  • Kellas, G., Ashcraft, M. H., & Johnson, N. S. (1973). Rehearsal processes in the short-term memory performance of mildly retarded adolescents: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 77(5) Mar 1973, 670-679.
  • Lei, T.-J., Butler, E. W., & Sabagh, G. (1972). Family socio-cultural background and the behavioral retardation of children: Journal of Health and Social Behavior Vol 13(3) Sep 1972, 318-326.
  • Lesser, H., Degnan, M. O., & Markey, N. A. (1978). The performance of cultural-familial retardates on conservation tasks: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 132(1) Mar 1978, 153-154.
  • Loquet, C. A. (1973). Socio-cultural deprivation or difference? : Australian Journal of Mental Retardation Vol 2(8) Dec 1973, 228-231.
  • Luckin, B. (1986). Time, place and competence: Society and history in the writings of Robert Edgerton: Disability, Handicap & Society Vol 1(1) 1986, 89-102.
  • Miezejeski, C. M. (1974). Effect of white noise on the reaction time of mentally retarded subjects: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 79(1) Jul 1974, 39-43.
  • Nesbit, W. C., & Hartmann, B. D. (1979). A differential diagnosis of organicity in mentally handicapped children: British Journal of Mental Subnormality Vol 25(49, Pt 2) Dec 1979, 75-78.
  • Pourtois, J.-P., & Desmet, H. (1987). Cultural context and socioeducational intervention: Studi di Psicologia dell'Educazione Vol 6(1) 1987, 62-82.
  • Ramey, C. T., & Campbell, F. A. (1979). Early childhood education for psychosocially disadvantaged children: Effects on psychological processes: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 83(6) May 1979, 645-648.
  • Ramey, C. T., Dorval, B., & Baker-Ward, L. (1983). Group day care and socially disadvantaged families: Effects on the child and the family: Advances in Early Education & Day Care Vol 3 1983, 69-106.
  • Ramey, C. T., Mills, P., Campbell, F. A., & O'Brien, C. (1975). Infants' home environments: A comparison of high-risk families and families from the general population: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 80(1) Jul 1975, 40-42.
  • Ramey, C. T., & Smith, B. J. (1977). Assessing the intellectual consequences of early intervention with high-risk infants: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 81(4) Jan 1977, 318-324.
  • Reijneveld, S. A., Brugman, E., Verhulst, F. C., & Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2005). Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems: A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Vol 40(1) Jan 2005, 18-23.
  • Schoepf, D., Heun, R., Weiffenbach, O., Herrmann, S., & Maier, W. (2003). The 4-week prevalence of somatoform disorders and associated psychosocial impairment: Nervenarzt Vol 74(3) 2003, 245-251.
  • Silverman, W. P. (1974). Complex visual discriminations in cultural familial retardates and normal children: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 103(3) Sep 1974, 539-545.
  • Silverman, W. P. (1974). High speed scanning of nonalphanumeric symbols in cultural-familially retarded and nonretarded children: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 79(1) Jul 1974, 44-51.
  • Tymchuk, A. J. (1972). Personality and sociocultural retardation: Exceptional Children Vol 38(9) May 1972, 721-728.
  • Tymchuk, A. J. (1973). Effects of concept familiarization vs. stimulus enhancement on verbal abstracting in institutionalized retarded delinquent boys: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 77(5) Mar 1973, 551-555.
  • Vranjesevic, D. (1973). Neuropsychiatric disorders which can simulate mental retardation: Psychiatry Today Vol 5(1) 1973, 97-105.
  • Wilton, K. M., & Irvine, J. (1983). Nutritional intakes of socioculturally mentally retarded children vs. children of low and average socioeconomic status: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 88(1) Jul 1983, 79-85.
  • Yeates, K. O., MacPhee, D., Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C. T. (1983). Maternal IQ and home environment as determinants of early childhood intellectual competence: A developmental analysis: Developmental Psychology Vol 19(5) Sep 1983, 731-739.
  • Zurron, M., & Diaz, F. (1995). Auditory and visual evoked potentials in individuals with organic and cultural-familial mental retardation: American Journal on Mental Retardation Vol 100(3) Nov 1995, 271-282.

DissertationsEdit

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