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Psychological projection (or projection bias) can be defined as unconsciously assuming that others share the same or similar thoughts, beliefs, values, or positions on any given subject. According to the theories of Sigmund Freud, it is a psychological defense mechanism whereby one "projects" one's own undesirable thoughts, motivations, desires, feelings—basically parts of oneself—onto someone else (usually another person, but psychological projection onto animals and inanimate objects also occurs). Thus, projection involves imagining or projecting the belief that others originate those feelings.[1]. The principle of projection is well-established in psychology.

OverviewEdit

'Emotions or excitations which the ego tries to ward off are "split out" and then felt as being outside the ego...perceived in another person'.[2] It is a common process.[3] The related defense of 'projective identification' differs from projection in that the impulse projected onto an external object does not appear as something alien and distant from the ego because the connection of the self with that projected impulse continues'.[4]

In one example of the process, a person might have thoughts of infidelity with respect to a spouse or other partner. Instead of dealing with these undesirable thoughts consciously, the subject unconsciously projects these feelings onto the other person, and begins to think that the other has thoughts of infidelity and that the other may be having an affair. In this way, the subject may obtain 'acquittal by his conscience - if he projects his own impulses to faithlessness on to the partner to whom he owes faith'.[5] In this sense, projection is related to denial, arguably the only more primitive defense mechanism than projection, which, like all defense mechanisms, provides a function whereby a person can protect the conscious mind from a feeling that is otherwise repulsive.

Projection can also be established as a means of obtaining or justifying certain actions that would normally be found atrocious or heinous. This often means projecting false accusations, information, etc., onto an individual for the sole purpose of maintaining a self-created illusion. One of the many problems with the process whereby 'something dangerous that is felt inside can be moved outside - a process of "projection"' - is that as a result 'the projector may become somewhat depleted and rendered limp in character, as he loses part of his personality'.[6]

Compartmentalization, splitting, and projection are argued to be ways that the ego maintains the illusion that it is completely in control at all times. Further, while engaged in projection, individuals can be unable to access truthful memories, intentions, and experiences, even about their own nature, as is common in deep trauma.[7]


ExamplesEdit

An illustration would be an individual (Alice, for example) who feels dislike for another person (let's say Bob), however her unconscious mind will not allow her to become aware of this negative emotion. Instead of admitting to herself that she feels dislike for Bob, she projects her dislike onto Bob, so that her conscious thought is not "I don't like Bob," but "Bob doesn't seem to like me." In this way one can see that projection is related to denial, the only other defense mechanism that is more primitive than projection. Alice has denied a part of herself that is desperate to come to the surface. She can't flatly deny that she doesn't like Bob, so instead she will project the dislike, thinking Bob doesn't like her. Another, and an ironic, example is if Alice were to say, "Bob seems to project his feelings onto me."

A a further example of this behavior might be blaming another for self failure. The mind may avoid the discomfort of consciously admitting personal faults by keeping those feelings unconscious, and by redirecting libidinal satisfaction by attaching, or "projecting," those same faults onto another person or object.

Other instancesEdit

  • "Projection is the opposite defence mechanism to identification. We project our own unpleasant feelings onto someone else and blame them for having thoughts that we really have."
  • "A defense mechanism in which the individual attributes to other people impulses and traits that he himself has but cannot accept. It is especially likely to occur when the person lacks insight into his own impulses and traits."
  • "Attributing one's own undesirable traits to other people or agencies, e.g., an aggressive man accuses other people of being hostile."
  • "The individual perceives in others the motive he denies having himself. Thus the cheat is sure that everyone else is dishonest. The would-be adulterer accuses his wife of infidelity."
  • "People attribute their own undesirable traits onto others. An individual who unconsciously recognises his or her aggressive tendencies may then see other people acting in an excessively aggressive way."
  • "An individual who possesses malicious characteristics, but who is unwilling to perceive himself as an antagonist, convinces himself that his opponent feels and would act the same way."

Peter Gay describes it as "the operation of expelling feelings or wishes the individual finds wholly unacceptable—too shameful, too obscene, too dangerous—by attributing them to another." (Freud: A Life for Our Time, page 281)

HistoryEdit

The theory was developed by Sigmund Freud - in his letters to Wilhelm Fliess, '"Draft H" deals with projection as a mechanism of defence'[8] - and further refined by his daughter Anna Freud; for this reason, it is sometimes referred to as Freudian Projection.[9]

The concept was anticipated by Friedrich Nietzsche:

"He who fights with monsters might take care lest he thereby become a monster. And if you gaze for long into an abyss, the abyss gazes also into you."
Beyond Good and Evil

Psychological projection is the subject of Robert Bly's book A Little Book on the Human Shadow. The "Shadow"—a term used in Jungian psychology to describe a variety of psychological projection—refers to the projected material.

The philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach based his theory of religion in large part upon the idea of projection, i.e., the idea that an anthropomorphic deity is the outward projection of man's anxieties and desires.[10]

The "Shadow"—a term used in Jungian psychology to describe one kind of psychological projection—refers to the projected material from the individual's personal unconscious.[11] Jungians consider that 'Political agitation in all countries is full of such projections, just as much as the backyard gossip of little groups and individuals'.[12] Marie-Louise Von Franz extended the view of projection to cover phenomena in Patterns of Creativity Mirrored in Creation Myths: "... wherever known reality stops, where we touch the unknown, there we project an archetypal image".[13]

Psychological projection is one of the medical explanations of bewitchment that attempts to diagnose the behavior of the afflicted children at Salem in 1692. The historian John Demos asserts that the symptoms of bewitchment experienced by the afflicted girls in Salem during the witchcraft crisis were because the girls were undergoing psychological projection.[14] Demos argues the girls had convulsive fits caused by repressed aggression and were able to project this aggression without blame because of the speculation of witchcraft and bewitchment.

Counter-projectionEdit

When addressing psychological trauma, the defense mechanism is sometimes counter-projection, including an obsession to continue and remain in a recurring trauma-causing situation and the compulsive obsession with the perceived perpetrator of the trauma or its projection.

Jung writes that "All projections provoke counter-projection when the object is unconscious of the quality projected upon it by the subject."[15]

PsychopathologyEdit

In psychopathology, projection is an especially commonly used defense mechanism in people with certain personality disorders: 'Patients with paranoid personalities, for example, use projection as a primary defense because it allows them to disavow unpleasant feelings and attribute them to others'.[16]

According to Kernberg, all 'the primitive defenses, such as splitting, [projection] and projective identification, are commonly connected with primitively organized personalities, such as ':[17]

Projective techniquesEdit

Drawing on the theory that 'the individual "projects" something of himself or herself into everything he or she does, in line with Gordon Allport's concept of expressive behaviour',[18] projective techniques have been devised to aid personality assessment. 'The two best-known projective techniques are the Rorschach ink-blots and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)'.[19]


See also Edit


ReferencesEdit

  1. Wade, Tavris "Psychology" Sixth Edition Prentice Hall 2000 ISBN 0-321-04931-4
  2. Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (London 1946) p. 146
  3. Defenses. www.psychpage.com. URL accessed on 2008-03-11.
  4. Otto F. Kernberg, Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism (London 1990) p. 56
  5. Sigmund Freud, On Psychopathology (Middlesex 1987) p. 198
  6. R. Appignanesi ed., Introducing Melanie Klein (Cambridge 2006) p. 115 and p. 126
  7. Trauma and Projection
  8. Jean-Michel Quinodoz, Reading Freud (London 2005) p. 24
  9. Shepard, Simon. "Basic Psychological Mechanisms: Neurosis and Projection". The Heretical Press. Retrieved on March 07, 2008.
  10. Encyclopædia Britannica
  11. Jungian Projection
  12. Carl G. Jung ed., Man and his Symbols (London 1978) p. 181
  13. Karl Wolfe Psychological Projection
  14. John Demos, "Underlying Themes in the Witchcraft of Seventeenth-Century New England," American Historical Review 75, no. 5 (June, 1970):1322.
  15. General Aspects of Dream Psychology, CW 8, par. 519
  16. Glen O. Gabbard, Long-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (London 2010) p. 33
  17. Gabbard, Psychotherapy p.33
  18. B. Semeonoff, "Projective Techniques", in Richard Gregory ed, The Oxford Companion to the Mind (Oxford 1987) p. 646
  19. Semeonoff, Mind p. 646

Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • Ali, S. (1970). On projection: A psychoanalytic study. Oxford, England: Payot.
  • Alvarez, A. (2000). A developmental view of 'defence': The borderline psychotic child. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
  • Blumfarb, H. (1989). Collusive projective processes in group psychotherapy: A mode of resistance and a vehicle for change. Chicago, IL: Year Book Publishers.
  • Britton, R. (1992). Keeping things in mind. New York, NY: Tavistock/Routledge.
  • Woltmann, A. G. (2002). Mud and clay. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  • Zinner, J. (1989). The implications of projective identification for marital interaction. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.


PapersEdit

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DissertationsEdit

  • Atlas, G. D. (1988). Defensiveness and projection: How individual differences affect person perception: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bingaman, K. A. (2001). Religious faith as psychological projection: Responses to Freud (Sigmund Freud, Ana-Maria Rizzuto, Paul Ricoeur, Judith Van Herik). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Bohan, D. F. (1984). Selected intrapersonal variables affecting handicapped college students' membership in extracurricular organizations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brody, P. R. (1977). The impact of loss in depression: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bronson, N. L. (1982). Defensive projection in depressed married women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Worth, B. R. (1999). A psychoanalytic investigation of the presumed link between paranoia and projection. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Yohay, D. V. (1983). The relation of Jungian styles of consciousness to ego functioning: An exploratory study: Dissertation Abstracts International.


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