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Psychokinesis (Greek ψυχή + κίνησις, literally spirit-movement")[1][2] or PK, also known as telekinesis[3] (Greek τῆλε + κίνησις, literally "distant-movement") or TK, is the proposed paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter or energy without the use of any currently known type of physical means.[4] For instance, psychokinesis might be used to distort or move an object,[5] or to influence a random number generator.[6]

Terminology

"Telekinesis" was coined in 1890[7] by German-Russian psychical researcher Alexander N. Aksakof.[8][9][10]

"Psychokinesis" was coined in 1914[11] by American author-publisher Henry Holt in his book On the Cosmic Relations[12] and adopted by his friend, American parapsychologist J. B. Rhine in 1934 in connection with experiments to determine if a person could influence the outcome of falling dice.[13][14]

Both terms have been described by other names, such as "remote influencing," "distant influencing," "remote mental influence," "distant mental influence,"[15] "directed conscious intention," and "mind over matter."[16]

Originally telekinesis was coined to refer to the movement of objects thought to be caused by ghosts of deceased persons, mischievous spirits, demons, or other supernatural forces.[17] Later when speculation increased that humans might be the source of the witnessed phenomena (that which was not caused by fraudulent mediums)[18] and could possibly cause movement without any connection to a spiritualistic setting, such as in a darkened séance room, psychokinesis was added to the lexicon, this done to differentiate between the earlier use of the term telekinesis.[19]

Eventually, psychokinesis was the preferred term by the parapsychological community (and still is) and it was suggested that telekinesis become obsolete.[20] Popular culture, however, such as movies, television, and literature, over the years preferred telekinesis to describe the paranormal movement of objects likely due to the word's resemblance to other terms, such as telepathy, teleportation, telephone, and television.[21]

Psychokinesis, then, is the general term that can be used to describe a variety of complex mental force phenomena (including object movement) and telekinesis is used to refer only to the movement of objects, however tiny (a grain of salt or air molecules to create wind)[22][23] or large (an automobile, building, or bridge).[24] Hypothetically, a person could have very profound telekinetic ability, but not be able to produce any of the additional effects found in psychokinesis, such as softening the metal of a spoon to allow its bending with minimal physical force. Conversely, someone who has succeeded in psychokinetically softening metal once or a number of times may exhibit no telekinetic ability to move objects.

Measurement and observation

Currently parapsychology researchers describe two basic types of measurable and observable psychokinetic and telekinetic effects in experimental laboratory research and in case reports occurring outside of the laboratory.[25][26][27]

Micro-PK or micro-TK is a very small effect, such as the manipulation of molecules, atoms,[28] subatomic particles,[29] etc., which can only be observed with scientific equipment. The words are abbreviations for micro-psychokinesis, micropsychokinesis;[30] micro-telekinesis, microtelekinesis.

Macro-PK or macro-TK is a large-scale effect which can be seen with the unaided eye. The words are abbreviations for macro-psychokinesis, macropsychokinesis; macro-telekinesis, macrotelekinesis.

The adjective phrases "microscopic-scale," "macroscopic-scale," "small-scale," and "large-scale" may also be used; for example, "a small-scale PK effect."

Spontaneous effects

Spontaneous movements of objects and other unexplained effects have been reported, and many parapsychologists believe they are possibly forms of psychokinesis/telekinesis .[31][32] Parapsychologist William G. Roll coined the term "recurrent spontaneous psychokinesis" (RSPK) in 1958.[33][34] The sudden movement of objects without deliberate intention in the presence or vicinity of one or more witnesses is thought by some to be related to as-yet-unknown PK/TK processes of the subconscious mind.[35] Researchers use the term "PK agent," especially in spontaneous cases, to describe someone who is suspected of being the source of the PK action.[36][37] Outbreaks of spontaneous movements or other effects, such as in a private home, and especially those involving violent or physiological effects, such as objects hitting people or scratches or other marks on the body, are sometimes investigated as poltergeist cases.

Types of abilities - classification

Potential uses of such an ability may include:

Telekinetic abilities

  • movement of matter (micro and macro; move, lift, agitate, vibrate, spin, bend, break, or impact)[74][75][76][77][78][79]

Notable claimants of psychokinetic or telekinetic ability

  • Uri Geller, the Israeli famous for his spoon-bending demonstrations, allegedly by PK.[82]

See also these Wikipedia Category lists:

Belief in telekinesis

In September 2006, a survey conducted by phone and mail-in questionnaire polled Americans on their belief in telekinesis. Of these participants 28 percent of male participants selected "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement It is possible to influence the world through the mind alone, as did 31 percent of female participants. There were 1,721 participants, and the poll had a margin of error of plus or minus four percent.[84] The survey as a whole was about belief in various religious and paranormal topics.

Cultural references

Main article: List of cultural references to psychokinesis and telekinesis
  • In the 1976 film Carrie, based on the Stephen King novel of the same name, Sissy Spacek portrays a troubled high school student with telekinetic powers.[85]
  • In the Star Wars movie series, numerous characters have the ability to control the movement of objects using "the Force."
  • Telekinetic or similar abilities are often found in fictional characters in comic books, such as Jean Grey of the X-Men.

See also

(the following related entries are listed alphabetically)

References

  1. (2001) Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Boston, Massachussetts USA: Random House Reference. ISBN 0-375-42599-3. Page 1560: "psycho-, a combining form representing psyche in compound words. ... (Gk, comb. form of psyche breath, spirit, soul, mind; akin to psycheim to blow)."
  2. (2005) The New Oxford American Dictionary, New York City: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517077-6. Page 1367: "psycho. comb. form relating to the mind or psychology: ...from Greek psukhe breath, soul, mind."
  3. Encyclopedia Britannica online: psychokinesis. URL accessed on July 16, 2006.
  4. http://parapsych.org/glossary_l_r.html#p Parapsychological Association, glossary of key words frequently used in parapsychology, Retrieved December 20 2006
  5. On-Line Medical Dictionary: psychokinesis. URL accessed on July 16, 2006.
  6. http://parapsych.org/glossary_l_r.html#r Parapsychological Association, glossary of key words frequently used in parapsychology, Retrieved December 20 2006
  7. (2005) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. ISBN 0-87779-809-5. Page 1284: "Telekinesis (1890)..."
  8. Myers, Frederic William Henry (December 1890). Proceedings, London, England: the journal of the Society for Psychical Research. Frederic William Henry Myers writing: "For the alleged movements without contact... M. A. Aksakof's new word 'telekinetic' seems to me the best attainable." Note: this quote as a cited reference can also be found in the multivolume "The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition," 1989, Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, ISBN: 0-19-861229-X."
  9. Parapsychology Foundation "Basic terms in Parapsychology". URL accessed on January 20, 2007. "Telekinesis. Older term for “psychokinesis,” coined by Alexander Aksakof (1895/1890), and still preferred in the former USSR; Soviet Union and Eastern Europe."
  10. Online Etymology Dictionary. URL accessed on January 20, 2007. "Telekinesis. 1890, said to have been coined by Alexander N. Aksakof (1832-1903) Imperial Councilor to the Czar... Translates Ger. 'Fernwirkung.'
  11. (2005) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. ISBN 0-87779-809-5. Page 1004: "Psychokinesis (1914)...."
  12. Parapsychology Foundation "Basic terms in Parapsychology". (Holt's books are available today as facimile reprints at online booksellers. On the Cosmic Relations can be read in pdf format on books.google.com.) URL accessed on December 22, 2006.
  13. Spence, Lewis (1920). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Kessinger Publishing (reprint publisher). ISBN 0-7661-2817-2. Page 752: "The term 'psychokinesis' or 'PK' was adopted by psychologist J.B. Rhine and his associates at the Psychology Department, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina from 1934 onwards in relation to experiments with influencing the fall of dice by mental concentration."
  14. Parapsychological Association - Glossary: PK/Psychokinesis. URL accessed on July 19, 2006.
  15. Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1. Page 329: "The expression [parapsychologist William] Braud prefers to describe this work is 'distant mental influence,' but it could also be called PK with human targets." Note: see Further Reading in this article for a later book by Braud with the same title.
  16. Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research, New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9. Page 341: "Psychokinesis (PK). The response of objects such as dice or the environment to a person's wishes is commonly labelled 'mind over matter.'" Note: see also the Quotes section in the article List of cultural references to psychokinesis and telekinesis for the origin of the phrase.
  17. Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research, New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9. Page 430: "Telekinesis. A term used by Frederick W. H. Myers to describe those physical phenomena of Spiritualism involving the movement of physical objects without the intermediation of any known physical energy."
  18. (1970, 1985, 1995) Man, Myth & Magic: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mythology, Religion, and the Unknown, New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. ISBN 1-85435-731-X. Page 2442: "Spiritualism aroused violent antagonism and criticism concentrating particularly on the physical phenomena occurring at seances, which opponents claimed were faked."
  19. Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research, New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9. Page 341: "PK... This term is used in preference to 'telekinesis' in order to avoid the implication that an effect on an object or the environment is produced by a deceased entity." Page 430: "Telekinesis. ... The Spiritualistic interpretation of telekinetic phenomena—that they are evidence of survival after death and of the existence of spirits—is usually not accepted in parapsychology or psychical research. The term 'telekinesis' is therefore usually not used because of its Spiritualistic connotations."
  20. Spence, Lewis (1920). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Kessinger Publishing (reprint publisher). ISBN 0-7661-2817-2. Page 753: "Psychokinesis. ... The term has now largely displaced 'Telekinesis' formerly used by psychical researchers and Spiritualists." Page 912: "Telekinesis. ... The term is now supplanted by Psychokinesis or PK."
  21. Google.com search results for telekinesis and psychokinesis. URL accessed on January 24, 2007. http://www.google.com/search?q=psychokinesis Telekinesis: 929,000 Psychokinesis: 775,000 (unfiltered results)
  22. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained, New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4. Page 478: "...rituals to control the weather may also involve PK."
  23. X-Men: The Last Stand at The Internet Movie Database The X-Men character Storm has the power to create wind and other weather effects.
  24. X-Men: The Last Stand at The Internet Movie Database These three feats: levitating automobiles, a building, and a bridge were featured in the movie as being performed by the characters Jean Grey and Magneto.
  25. Library.ThinkQuest.org - Glossary: Macro PK and Micro PK. URL accessed on October 14, 2006.
  26. Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research, New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9.
  27. Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1.
  28. Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1. Page 330: "...atomic-level PK effects..."
  29. Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1. Page 35: Most contemporary research into PK involves examining the direct influence of consciousness of the mind on finely balanced electronic devices—PK on atomic particles—and this has become known as micro PK."
  30. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained, New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4. Page 478: "micropsychokinesis" [spelling example].
  31. Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research, New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9. Page 326: "...cases involving noises or movement of objects have been reported and recorded over the centuries. ... Laboratory investigations under controlled conditions of such occurrences have not been possible since generally they start unexpectedly and take place spontaneously in private homes or offices."
  32. Spence, Lewis (1920). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Kessinger Publishing (reprint publisher). ISBN 0-7661-2817-2. Page 879: "Spontaneous phenomena. Unexplained experiences of ESP or PK and other paranormal phenomena in everyday life, as distinct from laboratory tests that can be adequately controlled and repeated."
  33. Roll, William G.; Pratt, J. G. (1958). The Seaford Disturbances, Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 2, pp 79-124.
  34. Parapsychological Association - Glossary: "RSPK". URL accessed on January 5, 2007.
  35. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained, New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4. Page 454: "Poltergeist. In other cases, the phenomena seem to be caused by subconscious psychokinesis (PK) on the part of one individual."
  36. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained, New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4. Page 456: (entry for Poltergeist) "...typically an agent, an individual who seems to act as a focus or magnet for the activity. The agent is a factor in most cases, both those that seem paranormal or that may be caused by human PK."
  37. Pratt, J. G.; Stevenson, Ian. "An Instance of Possible Metal-Bending Indirectly Related to Uri Geller," The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Vol. 70, January 1976: "As far as I can say, no one in the apartment that night would take credit for being the responsible PK agent."
  38. (2004) The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary, Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-42899-2. Page 769: "Psychokinesis. The production or control of motion, especially in inanimate and remote objects, purportedly by the exercise of psychic powers."
  39. (2001) Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Boston, Massachussetts USA: Random House Reference. ISBN 0-375-42599-3. Page 1561: "Psychokinesis. The purported ability to move... inanimate objects... through mental processes."
  40. Hathaway, Michael R. (2003). The Everything Psychic Book, Avon, Massachusetts, USA: Adams Media / F+W Publications Company. ISBN 1-58062-969-5. Page 129: "...psychokinesis... moving a solid object with your mind."
  41. (2003) Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Harlow, Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 0-582-50668-9. Page 1542: "Psychokinesis. The moving of solid objects using only the power of the mind, which some people believe is possible."
  42. Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1. Page 35: "...PK object movement or object deformations such as bending metal."
  43. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained, New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4. Page 478: ""Psychokinesis (PK). A form of psi that is the apparent influence of mind over matter through invisible means, such as the movement of objects, bending of metal, and the outcome of events."
  44. (2001) Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, New York: Random House Reference. ISBN 0-375-42599-3. "Psychokinesis.... deform inanimate objects, as metal spoons..."
  45. Hathaway, Michael R. (2003). The Everything Psychic Book, Avon, Massachusetts, USA: Adams Media / F+W Publications Company. ISBN 1-58062-969-5. Page 129: "...psychokinesis, a fancy word for feats like spoon bending or moving a solid object with your mind."
  46. Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1. Page 35: "...the apparent ability of a human being to affect objects, events, or even people around him or her without the usual intervention by the muscular system."
  47. (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series), New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9. Page 7: "Psychokinesis—or PK, as it is commonly known—refers to the alleged ability of the human mind to influence objects and events without the benefit of physical contact with them."
  48. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained, New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4. Page 478: "Psychokinesis... influence of mind over matter... such as... the outcome of events."
  49. Hathaway, Michael R. (2003). The Everything Psychic Book, Avon, Massachusetts, USA: Adams Media / F+W Publications Company. ISBN 1-58062-969-5. Page 271: Glossary: "Psychokinesis. The ability to levitate, move objects, heal, and manipulate psychic energy." Also, Page 139: "Psychokinesis is the ability to... create healing."
  50. Spence, Lewis (1920). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Kessinger Publishing (reprint publisher). ISBN 0-7661-2817-2. Page 752: "Psychokinesis.. influence on living targets, such as plants, healing, influencing of animals."
  51. (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series), New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9. Page 8: "...mental mastery of the human body... block out pain, levitate... healing."
  52. (2004) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. ISBN 0-87779-809-5. Page 1284: "Teleportation. The act or process of moving an object or person by psychokinesis."
  53. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained, New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4. Page 609: "Teleportation. The movement of bodies or objects over great distances; a form of psychokinesis (PK). ...the passage of solid objects through matter by dematerialization and materialization."
  54. (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series), New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9. Page 7: "...macro-PK... the movement of objects into and out of enclosed spaces without visible aid. ...teleportation effects."
  55. (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series), New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9. Page 8: "...disregard for physical barriers." Page 85: "...move items... from inside to outside a container....microparticles behave in somewhat simlar fashion, tunneling through barriers and showing up in places that classical physics decrees they should not be."
  56. Kakalios, James (2005). The Physics of Superheores, New York: Gotham Books/Penguin Group, Inc.. ISBN 1-592-40146-5. Page 250 (illustration, panel from X-Men comic book #130, 1980, showing pre-X-Men Kitty Pryde and dialogue): "I thought real hard -- an' I walked right through that wall, like it wasn't even there! It gets easier each time I do it, too!" (Followed by a real-world possible physics explanation by the author, a university physics professor.) Page 254: "With our improved understanding of physics, we can now more accurately describe Kitty Pryde's mutant power as being able to alter her macroscopic quantum wavefunction, increasing her tunneling probability to near 100 percent at will. Quite useful when one has locked the keys inside the car."
  57. (2006) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Definitive Guide to Characters of the Marvel Universe, New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7566-2358-8. Page 233: "Kitty Pryde. Powers: ...ability to pass ("phase") through solid matter..."
  58. Colman, Andrew M. (2001). Dictionary of Psychology, Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866211-4. Page 599: "Psychokinesis. The movement or change of physical objects by mental processes..."
  59. (2003) The New Enclyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition, Volume 9, Chicago, Illinois: Enclycolpaedia Britannica, Inc.. ISBN 0-85229-961-3. Page 762: "Psychokinesis. In parapsychology, the action of mind on matter, in which objects are caused to move or change as a result of mental concentration upon them.
  60. (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series), New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9. Page 7: "...materializations have also been interpretated as macro-PK..." Page 82: "...tangible objects might change their form or location..."
  61. (1995) Man, Myth & Magic: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mythology, Religion, and the Unknown, New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. ISBN 1-85435-731-X. Page 2354: "Shape-shifting. The idea that it is possible, in certain circumstances, for men to change their natural bodily form... Sorcerers also, and some great heroes, were believed to have the same power, by virtue of magical knowledge or some inate quality; and so, though more rarely, were a few otherwise oridinary people who acquired the gift through possession of a charm or the performance of a ritual act."
  62. (2003) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Marvel Universe Roleplaying Guide, New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 0-7851-1028-3. Page 29: "Mystique can... shift the atoms and molecules of her body and clothing to mimic the appearance of any human or humanoid of either sex."
  63. Okuda, Michael; Okuda, Denise (1994, 1997, 1999). The Star Trek Encyclopedia, New York: Pocket Books/Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-53609-5. Page 169: "Garth of Izar. ... Garth's escape attempt was aided by the Antos cellular-metamorphosis process, which allowed him to change his shape to become any person he wished." Page 334: "Odo. Odo was a shape-shifter, one of the founders of the Gamma Quandrant's Dominion. ... He'd turn himself into any object requested." Page 392: "Q. ... Q sought refuge in human form..."
  64. (2006) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Definitive Guide to Characters of the Marvel Universe, New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7566-2358-8. Page 144: "Invisible Woman: the Fantastic Four's female presence. ... Sue's powers evolved over time, giving her the ability to project impenetrable force fields and to turn objects invisible through mental control."
  65. (2005) Fantastic Four: The Ultimate Guide, New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7566-1173-3. Page 14: "Invisible Woman. Susan Storm Richards. ... She discovered... that she possessed the ability to manipulate cosmic energy with her mind. Among other things, this power enabled her to create invisible fields that could withstand considerable amounts of force."
  66. (2006) The Essential Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol. 1, New York: Marvel Publishing, Inc.. ISBN 0-7851-1933-7. [Entry for Invisible Girl, later renamed Invisible Woman] "Through concentration, she is able to project a field of psionic force which she can manipulate..."
  67. The Skeptic's Dictionary. URL accessed on February 27, 2007. Article: "Mass Media Funk" "Those who practice TT [Therapeutic Touch] believe they are able to move 'energy,' some sort of psychic force field or chi which they believe permeates the body and surrounding aura."
  68. (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series), New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9. Page 7-8: "The ability to influence air temperature and magnetic fields... is also considered... micropsychokinesis." Page 27: "Another American studied in the lab, Ingo Swann, was reportedly able to influence ambient air temperature and alter magnetic fields."
  69. Kakalios, James (2005). The Physics of Superheores, New York: Gotham Books/Penguin Group, Inc.. ISBN 1-592-40146-5. Page 191: "Magneto... the ability to generate and control magnetic fields."
  70. (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series), New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9. Page 7: "...macro-PK... optical effects, such as luminous 'spirit lights'..."
  71. Bersani, F.; Martelli, A. (1983). Psychoenergetics: The Journal of Psychophysical Systems, United Kingdom: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Page 99 (article pp 99-128): "The effects observed range from the typical bending of metal objects, such as spoons, keys, bars, etc., to strange effects like light flashes and teleportation."
  72. (2003) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Marvel Universe Roleplaying Guide, New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 0-7851-1028-3. Page 25: "Invisible Woman. Susan Storm... she realized she had the power to become invisible at will... to bend light without distortion—thus rendering herself (and other people and objects) invisible."
  73. (2006) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Definitive Guide to Characters of the Marvel Universe, New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7566-2358-8. Page 21: "Aurora. Powers:... Can project bright white light."
  74. (2005) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. ISBN 0-87779-809-5. Page 1284: "Telekinesis (1890). The production of motion in objects... without contact or other physical means."
  75. (2002) Webster's New World Dictionary and Thesaurus, Second Edition, Cleveland, Ohio USA: Wiley Publishing Co., Inc.. ISBN 0-7645-6545-1. Page 649: "Telekinesis. Parapsychology. The causing of an object to move psychic, rather than physical, force."
  76. (1980) Oxford American Dictionary, New York: Avon Books/HarperCollins Publishers/Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-380-60772-7. Page 946: "Telekinesis. The process of moving things without touching them and without ordinary physical means."
  77. (2006) Concise Oxford American Dictionary, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.. ISBN 0-19-530484-5. 934: "Telekinesis. The supposed ability to move objects at a distance by mental power or other nonphysical means."
  78. (1995) The Concise Oxford Dictionary, Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861320-2. 1432: "Telekinesis. Psychology. Movement of objects at a distance supposedly by paranormal means."
  79. Colman, Andrew M. (2001). Dictionary of Psychology, Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866211-4. Page 733: "Telekinesis. Movement of a body without the application of a physical force, a conjectural paranormal phenomenon."
  80. Kakalios, James (2005). The Physics of Superheores, New York: Gotham Books/Penguin Group, Inc.. ISBN 1-592-40146-5. Page 196: "Water molecules are diamagnetic, and since we are primarily composed of water, so are we. It is through our diamagnetism that Magneto is able to levitate himself and other people."
  81. (2003) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Marvel Universe Roleplaying Guide, New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 0-7851-1028-3. Page 23: "Jean Grey. ... Her telekinetic abilities allow her to levitate herself, other living beings, and inanimate objects."
  82. Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research, New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9.
  83. Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research, New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9.
  84. http://www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.php/33304.pdf Study conducted by the Gallup Organization between October 8, 2005 and December 12, 2005 on behalf of the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion, Baylor University, of Waco, Texas, in the United States.
  85. Official website of author Stephen King.. URL accessed on July 15, 2006.

Further reading

  • The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena, Dean Radin, HarperEdge, 1997.
  • Mind Over Matter, Loyd Auerbach, Kensington Books, 1996. ISBN 1-57566-047-4.
  • Distant Mental Influence, William Braud, Hampton Roads Publishing, Inc., 2003. ISBN 1-57174-354-5. (largely a collection of published scientific research papers on formal experiments in psychokinesis conducted by the author with others between 1983 to 2000).
  • Entangled Minds: Extrasensory Experiences in a Quantum Reality, Dean Radin, Pocket Books, 2006.
  • Flim Flam!, James Randi, Prometheus Books, 1982, ISBN 0-87975-198-3

Published Scientific Papers on PK / TK

Online Resources for Published Academic Articles and Scientific Papers on PK / TK

(do searches for "psychokinesis," "telekinesis," "conscious intention," etc.)

External links

General information

Major organizations and research centers in the PK / TK field


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