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'''Object relations theory''' is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. The internal objects are internalized versions of external objects, primarily formed from early interactions with the parents. There are three fundamental "affects" that can exist between the self and the other - attachment, frustration, and rejection. These affects are universal emotional states that are major building blocks of the personality. Object relations theory was pioneered in the 1940's and 50's by British psychologists [[Ronald Fairbairn]], [[Winnicott|D.W. Winnicott]], [[Harry Guntrip]], and others.
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'''Psychodynamic psychotherapy''' is a type of [[psychotherapy]], where the psychotherapist and client meet about once or twice a week. It is different from other systems of psychotherapy, for instance [[psychoanalysis]] or [[cognitive therapy]] in that it uses a range of different techniques, applied to the client considering his or her needs. A psychodynamic therapist may find that [[Object relations theory]] may be best for a client with [[Borderline Personality Disorder]], and the next client who displays some [[anxiety]] in her marriage may be given some cognitive therapy to give [[symptom relief]].
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
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{{main|Psychodynamics}}
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Psychodynamics was born with the 1874 publication of ''Lectures on Physiology'' by German scientist [[Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke|Ernst von Brucke]] who supposed that all living organisms are energy-systems governed by the principle of the conservation of energy. During this year, at the University of Vienna, Brucke was also coincidentally the supervisor for first-year medical student [[Sigmund Freud]] who adopted this new “dynamic” physiology. Later, the theory of psychodynamics was developed further by those such as [[Carl Jung]], [[Alfred Adler]], and [[Melanie Klein]].
   
[[Freud]] developed the concept [[object relation]] to
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== Approaches ==
describe or emphasize
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Most psychodynamic approaches are centered around the idea of a [[maladaptive function]] developed early in life (usually childhood) which are at least in part [[Unconscious mind|unconscious]]. This maladapted function (a.k.a. [[defense mechanism]]) does not do well as it formed instead of a normal/healthy one. Later on the client will feel discomfort when they notice (or do not notice) that this function causes problems day to day. The psychodynamic therapist will first treat the discomfort associated with the poorly formed function, reveal to the client that such a function exists, then change, remove or replace it with a proper one.
that bodily [[drive|drives]] satisfy their need through a medium, an object, on a specific locus. The central thesis in [[Melanie Klein]]'s object relations theory was that objects play a decisive role in the development of a subject and can be either [[part-object|part-objects]] or [[whole-object|whole-objects]], i.e. a single organ (a mother's breast) or a whole person (a mother). Consequently both a mother or just the mother's breast can be the locus of satisfaction for a [[drive]]. Furthermore, according to [[traditional psychoanalysis]], there are at least two types of drives, the [[libido]] (mythical counterpart: [[Eros]]), and the [[death]] drive (mythical counterpart: [[Thanatos]]). Thus, the objects can be receivers of both [[love]] and [[hate]], the affective effects of the [[libido]] and the death drive.
 
 
Until the 1970s, however, few American psychoanalysts were influenced by the school of [[Melanie Klein]], on the one hand, who constituted an opposite polarity to the school of [[Anna Freud]] (which dominated American psychoanalysis in 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s and was represented in the US by Hartmann, Kris, Loewenstein, Rapaport, Erikson, Jacobson, and Mahler), and, on the other hand, the "middle group" who fell between Anna Freud and Melanie Klein, and was influenced by the British schools of [[Michael Balint]], [[Donald Winnicott]], and [[Ronald Fairbairn]]. The strong animosity in England between the school of Anna Freud and that of Melanie Klein was transplanted to the US, where the Anna Freud group dominated totally until the 1970s, when new interpersonal psychoanalysis arose partly from ideas of culturalist psychoanalysis, influenced also by [[Ego psychology]], and partly by British theories which have also entered under the broad terminology of "British object relations theories".
 
 
Recent decades in developmental psychological research, for example on the onset of a "[[Theory of mind#Theory of Mind - Understanding that others have minds with separate beliefs desires and intentions|theory of mind]]" in children, has found that the formation of mental world is enabled by the infant-parent interpersonal interaction which was the main thesis of British object-relations tradition (e.g. Fairbairn, 1952).
 
 
[[Ronald Fairbairn|Fairbairn]] also discovered the psychological condition of dysfunctional interpersonal attachment of abused children to their abusing parents, which is now explained by [[Stockholm Syndrome]] as genetically programed neurobiological psychological response to a situation where the victim perceives her or his life (acutely or chronically) depends on their captor's good will.
 
   
==Sources==
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Psychodynamic psychotherapy involves a great deal of [[introspection]] and reflection from the client. Usually this level of insight is unfettered when the client wants to be helped or is pushed by family or friends. Speaking to this is also the client's ability to dive into their past; they must possess enough [[resilience]] and [[ego-strength]] to deal with/use the onslaught of feeling a new perspective brings. The more fragile client may be treated with a different treatment, for instance, cognitive therapy.
Fairbairn, W. R. D., (1952). An Object-Relations Theory of the Personality. New York: Basic Books.
 
   
Fairbairn, W. R. D., (1952). Endopsychic structure considered in terms of object relationships, London.
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== Objective ==
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The "goal" of psychodynamic therapy is the experience of "truth." This "truth" must be ''encountered'' through the breakdown of psychological ''defenses''. Simply stated: ''psychotherapy teaches the client to be honest.'' Of course, this requires considerable time, money, and effort. Individuals suffering from "[[mental disorders|psychological disorders]]" or deep-rooted "[[personality disorders]]," often come from confusing, manipulative, dishonest, or even violent families in childhood. Being honest with ones "feelings" is a difficult, even terrifying process for these people.
   
==See also==
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But there is a silver lining. If the patient is willing to face up to their hidden secrets: they will discover the unconscious "reason" for many of their feelings, and therefore obtain self-understanding and relief. In essence, the more honest and direct one is with his/her life, the more "symptoms" will dissolve, and the more one's childhood and defenses are understood.
* [[Stockholm Syndrome]]
 
   
[[category:Freudian psychology]]
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== See also ==
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* [[Psychodynamics]]
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* [[Psychoanalysis]]
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* [[Ego, superego, and id]]
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* [[Sigmund Freud]]
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* [[Carl Jung]]
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* [[Alfred Adler]]
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* [[Melanie Klein]]
   
[[fr:Théorie de la relation d'objet]]
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[[Category:Psychodynamic psychotherapy| ]]
[[he:תאוריית יחסי אובייקט]]
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[[Category:Psychology]]
[[ja:対象関係論]]
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[[Category:Psychotherapy]]
[[pl:Teoria relacji z obiektem]]
 
   
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:pl:Psychoterapia psychodynamiczna
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:sr:Психодинамска терапија
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:sv:Psykodynamisk psykoterapi
 
{{enWP| Psychodynamic_psychotherapy}}
 
{{enWP| Psychodynamic_psychotherapy}}

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Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a type of psychotherapy, where the psychotherapist and client meet about once or twice a week. It is different from other systems of psychotherapy, for instance psychoanalysis or cognitive therapy in that it uses a range of different techniques, applied to the client considering his or her needs. A psychodynamic therapist may find that Object relations theory may be best for a client with Borderline Personality Disorder, and the next client who displays some anxiety in her marriage may be given some cognitive therapy to give symptom relief.

HistoryEdit

Main article: Psychodynamics

Psychodynamics was born with the 1874 publication of Lectures on Physiology by German scientist Ernst von Brucke who supposed that all living organisms are energy-systems governed by the principle of the conservation of energy. During this year, at the University of Vienna, Brucke was also coincidentally the supervisor for first-year medical student Sigmund Freud who adopted this new “dynamic” physiology. Later, the theory of psychodynamics was developed further by those such as Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Melanie Klein.

Approaches Edit

Most psychodynamic approaches are centered around the idea of a maladaptive function developed early in life (usually childhood) which are at least in part unconscious. This maladapted function (a.k.a. defense mechanism) does not do well as it formed instead of a normal/healthy one. Later on the client will feel discomfort when they notice (or do not notice) that this function causes problems day to day. The psychodynamic therapist will first treat the discomfort associated with the poorly formed function, reveal to the client that such a function exists, then change, remove or replace it with a proper one.

Psychodynamic psychotherapy involves a great deal of introspection and reflection from the client. Usually this level of insight is unfettered when the client wants to be helped or is pushed by family or friends. Speaking to this is also the client's ability to dive into their past; they must possess enough resilience and ego-strength to deal with/use the onslaught of feeling a new perspective brings. The more fragile client may be treated with a different treatment, for instance, cognitive therapy.

Objective Edit

The "goal" of psychodynamic therapy is the experience of "truth." This "truth" must be encountered through the breakdown of psychological defenses. Simply stated: psychotherapy teaches the client to be honest. Of course, this requires considerable time, money, and effort. Individuals suffering from "psychological disorders" or deep-rooted "personality disorders," often come from confusing, manipulative, dishonest, or even violent families in childhood. Being honest with ones "feelings" is a difficult, even terrifying process for these people.

But there is a silver lining. If the patient is willing to face up to their hidden secrets: they will discover the unconscious "reason" for many of their feelings, and therefore obtain self-understanding and relief. In essence, the more honest and direct one is with his/her life, the more "symptoms" will dissolve, and the more one's childhood and defenses are understood.

See also Edit

pl:Psychoterapia psychodynamiczna
sr:Психодинамска терапија
sv:Psykodynamisk psykoterapi
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