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Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Psychic surgery has been condemned in many countries as a form of medical fraud. It has been denounced by the US Federal Trade Commission as a "total hoax", and the American Cancer Society maintains that psychic surgery may cause needless death by keeping the ill away from life-saving medical care. Medical professionals and skeptics consider it sleight of hand and any positive results a placebo effect.
Although psychic surgery varies by region and practitioner, it usually follows some common lines. Without the use of a surgical instrument, a practitioner will press the tips of his/her fingers against the patient's skin in the area to be treated. The practitioner's hands appear to penetrate into the patient's body painlessly and blood seems to flow. The practitioner will then show organic matter or foreign objects apparently removed from the patient's body, clean the area, and then end the procedure with the patient's skin showing no wounds or scars.
Most cases do not involve actual surgery although some practicioners make real incisions. The practitioners are using sleight of hand techniques to produce blood or blood-like fluids, animal tissue or substitutes, and/or various foreign objects from folds of skin of the patient as part of a confidence game for financial benefit of the practitioner.
Two psychic surgery practitioners provided testimony in an Federal Trade Commission trial that, to their knowledge, the organic matter apparently removed from the patients usually consists of animal tissue and clotted blood. In regions of the world where belief in evil spirits is prevalent, practitioners will sometimes exhibit objects, such as glass, explaining that the foreign bodies were placed in the patient's body by evil spirits.
In the Philippines, the procedure was first noticed in the 1940s, when performed routinely by Eleuterio Terte. Terte and his pupil Tony Agpaoa, who was apparently associated with the Union Espiritista Christiana de Filipinas (The Christian Spiritist Union of the Philippines), trained others in this procedure.
In 1959, the procedure came to the attention of the U. S. public after the publication of Into the Strange Unknown by Ron Ormond and Ormond McGill. The authors called the practice "fourth dimensional surgery," and wrote "[we] still don’t know what to think; but we have motion pictures to show it wasn’t the work of any normal magician, and could very well be just what the Filipinos said it was — a miracle of God performed by a fourth dimensional surgeon."
Alex Orbito, who became well-known in the U. S. through his association with actress Shirley MacLaine]] was one said practitioner of the procedure. On June 14, 2005, Orbito was arrested by Canadian authorities and indicted for fraud.
Psychic surgery made U.S. tabloid headlines in March 1984 when comedian Andy Kaufman, diagnosed with large cell carcinoma (a rare lung cancer), traveled to the Philippines for a six-week course of psychic surgery. Practitioner Jun Labo claimed to have removed large cancerous tumors and Kaufman declared he believed the cancer had been removed.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Kaufman died from renal failure as consequence of a metastatic lung cancer, on May 16, 1984 (in the 1999 movie about Kaufman's life Man on the Moon, the surgery is featured in the film, but is depicted as a fake process that involves animal organs).
The origins of the practice in Brazil are obscure; but by the late 1950s several "spiritual healers" were practicing in the country.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Many of them were associated with Kardecism, a major spiritualistic movement in Brazil [How to reference and link to summary or text], and claimed to be performing their operations merely as channels for spirits of deceased medical doctors. Others were following practices and rituals known as "Umbanda", a shamanic ritualistic religion with mediumistic overtones inherited from the African slaves brought to the country in colonial times.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
A known Brazilian psychic healer who routinely practiced psychic surgery was José (Zé) Arigó, who claimed to be channeling for a deceased medical doctor of name Dr. Fritz. Unlike most other psychic healers, who work bare-handed, Arigo used a non surgical blade. Other psychic healers who claimed to channel for Dr. Fritz were Edson Queiroz and Rubens Farias Jr.. Popular today (especially abroad) is João de Deus, a psychic healer in Abadiânia, state of Goiás.
According to the descriptions of Yoshiaki Omura (1997)[How to reference and link to summary or text], Brazilian psychic surgery appears to be different from that practiced in the Philippines. Omura calls attention to the fact that practitioners in Brazil use techniques resembling Qi Gong, Shiatsu massage, and chiropractic manipulation. Some patients are also injected with a brown liquid, and alleged minor surgery was performed in about 20% of the cases observed.[How to reference and link to summary or text] While Arigó performed his procedures using kitchen knives in improvised settings, Omura reports that the clamping of blood vessels and the closing of the surgical wounds are now performed by licensed surgeons or licensed nurses.
Medical and legal criticismEdit
In 1975, the Federal Trade Commission declared that "'psychic surgery' "is nothing but a total hoax"." Judge Daniel H. Hanscom, when granting the FTC an injunction against travel agencies promoting psychic surgery tours, declared: "Psychic surgery is pure and unmitigated fakery. The 'surgical operations' of psychic surgeons ... with their bare hands are simply phony."
In 1990, the American Cancer Society stated that it found no evidence that "psychic surgery" results in objective benefit in the treatment of any medical condition, and strongly urged individuals who are ill not to seek treatment by psychic surgery.
The British Columbia Cancer Agency "strongly urges individuals who are ill not to seek treatment by psychic surgeon."
While not directly hazardous to the patient, the belief in the alleged benefits of psychic surgery may carry considerable risk for individuals with diagnosed medical conditions, as they may delay or forgo conventional medical help, sometimes with fatal consequences.
Claims of fraudEdit
According to James Randi, a stage magician who turned psychic debunker, psychic surgery is a sleight-of-hand confidence trick. He said that in personal observations of the procedure, and in movies showing the procedures, he can spot sleight-of-hand moves that are evident to experienced stage magicians, but might deceive a casual observer. Randi has replicated the appearance of psychic surgery himself through the use of sleight-of-hand. Professional magicians Milbourne Christopher and Robert Gurtler have also observed psychic surgeons at work, and claimed to have spotted the use of sleight-of-hand. On his A&E show Mindfreak in the episode "Sucker," illusionist Criss Angel performed "Psychic Surgery," showing first-hand how it may be done (fake blood, plastic bags and chicken livers were used).
In Randi's view, the healer would slightly roll or pinch the skin over the area to be treated. When his flattened hand reaches under the roll of skin, it looks and feels as if the practitioner is actually entering into the patient's body. The healer would have prepared in advance small pellets or bags of animal entrails which would be palmed in his hand or hidden beneath the table within easy reach. This organic matter would simulate the "diseased" tissue that the healer would claim to be removing. If the healer wants to simulate bleeding, he might squeeze a bladder of animal blood or an impregnated sponge.(  ) If done properly, this procedure may deceive patients and observers. However, some "psychic surgery" procedures do not rely solely on the "sleight of hand" described .
Art and entertainmentEdit
- In the 1989 film Penn & Teller Get Killed, comedic magicians Penn and Teller demonstrate how to perform the illusion of psychic surgery.
- In the TV show Criss Angel Mindfreak, Season 2 Episode "Sucker", Criss explains psychic surgery as a deception .
- In the BBC documentary Full Circle with Michael Palin, Michael Palin visits two psychic surgeons while venturing through the Philippines and even assists one of them on a procedure.
- In the 1999 movie Man on the Moon, a movie based on the life of Andy Kaufman, Kaufman receives Psychic surgery and notices the "sleight of hand".
- ↑ FTC Decision, July-December 1975. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 F.T.C. Curtails the Promotion Of All Psychic Surgery Tours - The New York Times. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 (1990)"Psychic surgery". CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 40 (3): 184-8.
- ↑ Randi, James (1989). The Faith Healers, Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-535-0.
- ↑ David Vernon in Skeptical - a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal, ed Donald Laycock, David Vernon, Colin Groves, Simon Brown, Imagecraft, Canberra, 1989, ISBN 0731657942, p47
- ↑ Evan, Dylan (2003). Placebo. Mind over matter in modern medicine., Great Britain: Harper Collins Publishers.
- ↑ Brody, Howard M.D. PhD (2000). The Placebo response, New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
- ↑ Spence, Lewis (2003). Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology Vol. 2, p 750, Kessinger Publishing Co.
- ↑ (1959) Into the Strange Unknown By the Two Men Who Lived Every Moment of it, The Esoteric Foundation.
- ↑ Fake healing. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ The Filipino Reporter. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ , Psychic Surgery. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ Andy Kaufman's death certificate. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ California Death Index
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Yoshiaki Omura on psychic surgery in Brazil. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ James Randi Educational Foundation — Arigó, José. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ Rio Journal;Live, in Brazil (Again): The Reincarnated Dr. Fritz - New York Times. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ John of God. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ "F.T.C. Curbs Philippines Flights For Cures by 'Psychic Surgery'"; New York Times March 15, 1975, p. 11 (Judge Hanscom: "pure and unmitigated fakery... simply phony")
- ↑ includeonly>"Unconventional therapies--Psychic surgery", British Columbia Cancer Agency, February 2000. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
- ↑ NCAHF Statements on Faith Healing and Psychic Surgery. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ The following images are of Randi demonstrating "psychic surgery":
- ↑ http://www.randi.org/jr/021805a.html#5
- James Randi debunks "psychic surgery"
- Unconventional therapies - Psychic Surgery — overview by the British Columbia Cancer Agency
- Psychic "surgery" — definition in the Skeptic's Dictionary
- An Article on Alex L. Orbito - a believer's view.
- Fake Healing - a description of an event involving Mr. Orbito with editorial commentary.
- "Psychic Surgery" (1990) Ca. Cancer J. Clin. 40(3) 184-8 Abstract Full text Terte/Agpaoa origins; exposed by Milbourne Christopher and Robert Gurtler.
- "Sideshows of Science," David Perlman, San Francisco Chronicle, January 8, 2001; text. Reference to "psychic underground"
- 'Psychic surgeon' a heel, not a healer, police say Globe and Mail story on Orbito's 2005 arrest in Toronto
- Psychic surgeon charged Filipino Reporter story on Orbito's 2005 arrest in Toronto
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