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Projective techniques present ambiguous or unstructured stimuli to respondents on the assumption that their responses will reveal aspects about their attitudes , personality etc. This is commonly accomplished by a projective personality measure, a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts. This is different from an "objective test" in which responses are analyzed according to a universal standard (for example, a multiple choice exam) rather than an individual's judgement.

The general theoretical position behind such a practice is that whenever you ask a "question", all you get in response is an "answer"; and, according to those who advocate projective tests, these answers, whilst providing genuine information on the matters raised by the questions, may have nothing to do with what is really on the subject's mind (and, from this position, what is really "the matter). Advocates of this approach stress that the ambiguity of the stimuli presented within the tests allow subjects to vent their inner thoughts. In many cases, however, this claim that it allows the subject to externalize whatever may be operating beneath their conscious awareness is often nullified by the testers' beliefs that certain responses have universally standard "meanings".

The best known projective test is the Rorschach inkblot test, in which a patient is shown irregular spot of ink, and asked to explain what they see; the response is then analyzed in various ways, noting not only what the patient said, but the time taken to respond, what aspect of the drawing was focused on, and how the response compared to other responses for the same drawing. For example, if someone consistently sees the images as threatening and frightening, the psychiatrist may infer that he or she may suffer from paranoia.

Another popular projective test is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) in which a patient views ambiguous scenes of people, and is asked to describe various aspects of the scene; for example, the patient may be asked to describe what led up to this scene, the emotions of the characters, and what might happen afterwards. The examiner then evaluates these descriptions, attempting to discover conflicts and hidden emotions within the patient, and work toward a successful psychoanalytic cure.

These tests have lost popularity as psychology has advanced. Many within the field no longer adhere to Freudian principles; the idea of repression that underlies the tests has been dismissed as false or outdated by many. Other criticisms concern the nature of the tests themselves. For example, it is observed that they can only be effective if the examiner interprets the responses correctly. Because they depend so heavily on the judgements of the examiner, some see projective tests as unscientific. However, a number of psychologists still use them as a way to get introduced to the patient in a nonthreatening manner.

Projective techniques, including TAT, are also used in focus groups for marketing research, for example to help identify potential associations between brand images and the emotions or responses they may provoke. The application of responses is different here to that in psychology, and the results from several respondents are grouped together for analysis by the organisation commissioning the research.


Projective testsEdit

Projective tests allow for a much freer type of response. An example of this would be the Rorschach test, in which a person states what each of ten ink blots might be. The terms "objective test" and "projective test" have recently come under criticism in the Journal of Personality Assessment. The more descriptive "rating scale or self-report measures" and "free response measures" are suggested, rather than the terms "objective tests" and "projective tests," respectively. There remains some controversy regarding the utility and validity of projective testing which is based on Freud's concept of projecting one's own personality attributes onto a neutral stimulus. However, many practitioners continue to rely on projective testing, and some testing experts (e.g., Cohen, Anastasi) suggest that these measures can be useful in developing therapeutic rapport. The most widely used scoring system for the Rorschach is Exner's Comprehensive System.

Another common projective test is the Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943, which is often scored with Drew Westen's (1991) Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales and Phebe Cramer's Defense Mechanisms Manual (1991). Both "rating scale" and "free response" measures are used in contemporary clinical practice. For the administration, construction, scoring and interpretation of such tests see the article on the appropriate test.

Other measures include:-



See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

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