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Proenkephalin (PENK), formerly known as proenkephalin A (since proenkephalin B was renamed prodynorphin), is an endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone which, via proteolyic cleavage, produces the enkephalin peptides [Met]enkephalin, and to a lesser extent, [Leu]enkephalin.[1] Upon cleavage, each proenkephalin peptide results in the generation of four copies of [Met]enkephalin, two extended copies of [Met]enkephalin, and one copy of [Leu]enkephalin.[1] Contrarily, [Leu]enkephalin] is predominantly synthesized from prodynorphin, which produces three copies of it per cleavage, and no copies of [Met]enkephalin. Other endogenous peptides produced by proenkephalin include adrenorphin,[2] amidorphin,[3] BAM-18,[4] BAM-20P,[5] BAM-22P,[5] peptide B,[6] peptide E,[7] and peptide F.[8]

See also Edit


References Edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Donald W. Pfaff (2002). Hormones, brain, and behavior, 173, Elsevier. URL accessed 25 November 2011.
  2. Matsuo H, Miyata A, Mizuno K (1983). Novel C-terminally amidated opioid peptide in human phaeochromocytoma tumour. Nature 305 (5936): 721–3.
  3. Seizinger BR, Liebisch DC, Gramsch C, et al. (1985). Isolation and structure of a novel C-terminally amidated opioid peptide, amidorphin, from bovine adrenal medulla. Nature 313 (5997): 57–9.
  4. Hurlbut DE, Evans CJ, Barchas JD, Leslie FM (June 1987). Pharmacological properties of a proenkephalin A-derived opioid peptide: BAM 18. European Journal of Pharmacology 138 (3): 359–66.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Mizuno K, Minamino N, Kangawa K, Matsuo H (December 1980). A new family of endogenous "big" Met-enkephalins from bovine adrenal medulla: purification and structure of docosa- (BAM-22P) and eicosapeptide (BAM-20P) with very potent opiate activity. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 97 (4): 1283–90.
  6. Micanovic R, Kruggel W, Ray P, Lewis RV (1984). Purification and sequence of a non-opioid peptide derived from ovine proenkephalin: implications for possible species specific processing. Peptides 5 (5): 853–6.
  7. Boarder MR, Evans C, Adams M, Erdelyi E, Barchas JD (December 1987). Peptide E and its products, BAM 18 and Leu-enkephalin, in bovine adrenal medulla and cultured chromaffin cells: release in response to stimulation. Journal of Neurochemistry 49 (6): 1824–32.
  8. Jones BN, Stern AS, Lewis RV, et al. (October 1980). Structure of two adrenal polypeptides containing multiple enkephalin sequences. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 204 (1): 392–5.

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Target-derived NGF, BDNF, NT-3


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