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Pride refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, or object that one identifies with. Sometimes a person tries not to be humiliated, and in doing so humiliates themself further (usually people that do this are arrogant).

Proud comes from late Old English prud, probably from Old French prude "brave, valiant" (11th century), from Latin prode "advantageous, profitable", from prodesse "be useful". The sense of "having a high opinion of oneself", not in French, may reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves "proud", like the French knights preux.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Excesses

"Pride" is also used to mean hubris, or excessive pride, which was usually the defining trait that leads to the tragic hero's tragic downfall according to Aristotle. This negative connotation of pride sometimes appears in a religious context.

Excessive pride also manifests itself as arrogance, the act of obtaining rights or advantages, including vainglorious or rhetorical advantages, sometimes through violence or threat of violence, or through verbal violence.

Religious references

Many major religions, using "pride" in the sense of "hubris" or "arrogance", denounce it:

In Christianity, pride (also vanity or arrogance) is the essentially competitive and excessive belief in one's own abilities that interferes with the individual's recognition of the grace of God, or the worth which God sees in others.[How to reference and link to summary or text] It has been called the sin from which all others arise.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Pride is listed as one of the seven deadly sins, as superbia.

In Hinduism, Ravana, an evil king who was killed by Rama, avatar of Vishnu, exhibited the sins of pride and lust. In spirituality pride is linked to the local "I" and ego, as distinct from the nonlocal "us".[How to reference and link to summary or text]

In Islam, pride is also forbidden: According to a narration from Muhammad, he said: "He in whose heart there is as much as a grain of pride will not enter paradise," and a man remarked: "A man likes his garment to be beautiful and his sandals to be beautiful." Then Muhammad replied: "God, Most High, is beautiful and likes beauty; pride is disdaining what is true and despising people" (Sahih Muslim).

In Judaism and also Christianity, numerous verses of the Tanakh/Old Testament speak to pride or arrogance. "Blessed is that man that makes the LORD his trust, and looks not to the proud, nor to those that turn aside to lies." (Psalm 40:5) "Talk no more exceeding proudly, nor let arrogancy come out of your mouth: for the LORD is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed." (I Sam. 2:3)

In Taoism, according to the Tao Te Ching, pride and greed are human errors.

Social references

In Germany "national pride" ("Nationalstolz") is often associated with the former Nazi regime. Strong displays of national pride are therefore considered poor taste by many Germans. There is an ongoing public debate about the issue of German patriotism.

Secondary pride is a little-known but often felt variant of pride. The pride people feel for what their ancestors, children, or country has done is classified as secondary or vicarious pride.


See also


de:Stolz

fr:Orgueil (péché capital) he:גאווה pt:Orgulho pt:Arrogância ru:Гордость sv:Högmod

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