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'''Preadolescence''' (or '''prepuberal stage''', '''prenubile''' or '''prepubertal''' ) is a stage of [[Human development (biology)|human development]] through [[childhood]] that occurs in a child's years before [[adolescence]].<ref name="NOAD2">New Oxford American Dictionary. 2nd Edition. 2005. Oxford University Press.</ref>
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'''Preadolescence''' is a stage of [[Human development (biology)|human development]] following [[early childhood]] and prior to [[adolescence]].<ref name="NOAD2">New Oxford American Dictionary. 2nd Edition. 2005. Oxford University Press.</ref> It generally ends with the beginning of [[puberty]], but may also be defined as ending with the start of the teenage years.<ref name="nlm.nih.gov">{{Cite news|title=Puberty and adolescence|publisher=[[MedlinePlus]]|accessdate=2010-07-30|url=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001950.htm}}</ref><ref name="lifemodel.org">{{Cite web|title= The Theoretical Basis for the Life Model-Research And Resources On Human Development|publisher=|url= http://www.lifemodel.org/download/Model%20Building%20Appendix.pdf|accessdate= 2009-08-11}}</ref><ref name="psychology.sunysb">{{Cite web|title= PSY 345 Lecture Notes - Ego Psychologists, Erik Erikson|publisher=|url= http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/ewaters/345/2007_erikson/2006_erikson.pdf|accessdate= 2009-08-11}}</ref> For example, dictionary definitions generally designate it as 10–13 years.<ref>[http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/preadolescence?qsrc=2446 Dictionary.com --> Definition of preadolescence] (Based on the Random House Dictionary, 2009) Retrieved on July 5, 2009</ref> It may also be defined as the period from 9–14 years.<ref name="Corsaro">William A. Corsaro, ''The Sociology of Childhood'' (2005) p. 191 and p. 124</ref><ref name="Freeman">Donald C. Freeman, ''Essays in Modern Stylistics'' (1981) p. 399</ref> One can also distinguish middle childhood and preadolescence<ref name=" Corsaro"/> - middle childhood from approximately 5–8 years, as opposed to the time children are generally considered to reach preadolescence (age 9–14 years).<ref name="Freeman"/>
   
  +
Preadolescence can bring its own challenges and anxieties, and, unlike most of the preceding phases, crucial elements of preadolescence are starkly different for boys and girls.<ref>Giselle Liza Anatol, ''Reading Harry Potter'' (2003) p. 18</ref>
 
==Span==
 
==Span==
The point at which a child becomes an adolescent is usually defined by the onset of puberty. However, in some individuals (particularly females), puberty begins in the preadolescence years,<ref name="adc.bmj.com">{{cite web| title=Onset of Breast and Pubic Hair Development in 1231 Preadolescent Lithuanian Schoolgirls |publisher=adc.bmj.com|accessdate=2007-12-06|url=http://adc.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/adc.2004.057612v1}}</ref> and adolescence may extend a few years beyond the teenage years in others (typically males).<ref name="rainbowpediatrics.net">{{cite web| title=Questions about Sex, Puberty, and Periods, for adolescents and their parents: 12. Puberty: Growing Up Early |publisher=rainbowpediatrics.net|accessdate=2007-12-06|url=http://www.rainbowpediatrics.net/faq/17.1.html}}</ref>
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The point at which a child becomes an adolescent is defined by the onset of [[puberty]] or by the beginning of the teenage stage.<ref name=nlm.nih.gov/><ref name=lifemodel.org/><ref name=psychology.sunysb/> Adolescence is also viewed as ending with the teenage stage.<ref name=nlm.nih.gov/> However, in some individuals (particularly females), puberty begins in the preadolescence years,<ref name="adc.bmj.com">{{cite web| title=Onset of Breast and Pubic Hair Development in 1231 Preadolescent Lithuanian Schoolgirls |publisher=adc.bmj.com|accessdate=2007-12-06|url=http://adc.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/adc.2004.057612v1}}</ref> and adolescence may extend a few years beyond the teenage years in others (typically males).<ref name="rainbowpediatrics.net">{{cite web| title=Questions about Sex, Puberty, and Periods, for adolescents and their parents: 12. Puberty: Growing Up Early|publisher=rainbowpediatrics.net|accessdate=2007-12-06|url=http://www.rainbowpediatrics.net/faq/17.1.html}}</ref> Studies indicate that 'the onset of puberty has been one year earlier with each generation since the 1950s.'<ref>G. Ryan et al, ''Juvenile Sexual Offending'' (2010) p. 42</ref>
   
In terms of age in years, preadolescence is generally designated as the years from 10 to 13,<ref>[http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/preadolescence?qsrc=2446 Dictionary.com --> Definition of preadolescence] (Based on the Random House Dictionary, 2009) Retrieved on July 5, 2009</ref> although there is no exact agreement. Two of the sources suggest ages 10-12 for girls and 11-13 for boys.
+
There is no exact agreement as to when preadolescence starts and ends, and research suggests that 'chronological time...is by no means identical with developmental time - the duration of the "inner" stages of growth' - or with physiological time.<ref>A. Gesell et al., ''Youth'' (London 1956) p. 20</ref>
 
[[File:Child development stages.svg|thumb|center|600px|Approximate outline of development periods in [[child development]]. Preadolescence and preteen marked at center left.]]
 
   
  +
[[File:Child development stages.svg|thumb|center|upright=5|Approximate outline of development periods in [[child development]]. Preadolescence and preteen marked at center left.]]
 
==Psychological development==
 
==Psychological development==
 
{{Main|Developmental psychology}}
 
{{Main|Developmental psychology}}
Preadolescent children have a different view of the world from younger children in significant ways:
 
   
* May have a [[fear]] of [[kidnapping]]s, [[rape]]s, and scary media events, as opposed to fantasy things (e.g., witches, [[monster]]s, ghosts).
+
Of the 'two major [[socialization|socializing]] agents in children's lives: the family environment...and formal educational institutions,'<ref>Dafna Lemish, ''Children and Television'' (Oxford 2007) p. 181</ref> it is 'the family in its function a primary socializer of the child'<ref>David Cooper, ''The Death of the Family'' (Penguin 1974) p. 26</ref> that predominates in the first five years of life: middle childhood by contrast is characterized by 'a child's readiness for school...being self-assured and interested; knowing what kind of behavior is expected...being able to wait, to follow directions, and getting along with other children.'<ref>Daniel Goleman, ''Emotional Intelligence'' (London 1996) p. 193</ref>
* Have a more developed sense of looking into the future and seeing effects of their actions (as opposed to early childhood where children often do not worry about their future).
 
* Have more realistic [[job (role)|job]] expectations ("I want to be an engineer when I grow up", as opposed to "I want to be a wizard").
 
* Often have more [[chore]]s, such as helping around the house. The chores are also a bit more challenging then previously.
 
* View human [[Interpersonal relationship|relationship]]s differently (i.e. they may notice the flawed, human side of [[authority]] figures) .
 
* Begin to develop a sense of [[self (psychology)|self]]-[[Identity (social science)|identity]].
 
* Have increased feelings of [[independence]].
 
* Have a different view on [[morality]].
 
* More mature, sensible, realistic thoughts and actions
 
* Are responsible for younger siblings and relatives, such as [[babysitting]].
 
* Often beginning to experience [[limerence]], [[Puppy Love]], or [[love]].
 
* May start caring about what they look like and what they are wearing.
 
* May become more exposed to popular culture than childhood and may have interests that are more based on internet trends, television shows, movies, fashion, technology, and music, but are very shallow and corporate compared to the means of more rebellious and open teenagers. Preadolescents generally prefer certain [[brand]]s, and are a heavily targeted market of many advertisers. Their tendency to buy brand-name items may be due to a desire to fit in, although the desire is not as strong as it is with [[teenagers]]. Many of these brands include [[clothing]] and [[music]]. Examples of popular pop culture phonomena for preadolescenes at the current generation includes Disney Channel stars Hannah Montana and High School Musical. {{Citation needed|date=July 2009}}
 
   
==Freud on preadolescence==
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Preadolescent children in fact have a different view of the world from younger children in many significant ways. Typically, theirs is a more realistic view of life than the intense, fantasy-oriented world of earliest childhood. Preadolescents have more mature, sensible, realistic thoughts and actions: 'the most "sensible" stage of development...the child is a much ''less emotional being'' now.'<ref>Mavis Klein, ''Okay Parenting'' (1991) p. 13 and p. 78</ref> They will often have developed a sense of ' ''intentionality''. The wish and capacity to have an impact, and to act upon that with persistence';<ref>daniel Goleman, ''Emotional Intelligence'' (London 1996) p. 194</ref> and will have a more developed sense of looking into the future and seeing effects of their actions (as opposed to early childhood where children often do not worry about their future). This can include more realistic [[job (role)|job]] expectations ("I want to be an engineer when I grow up", as opposed to "I want to be a wizard"). Middle children generally show more investment 'in ''control over external reality'' through the acquisition of knowledge and competence':<ref>Mavis Klein, ''Okay Parenting'' (1991) p. 13</ref> where they do have worries, these may be more a [[fear]] of [[kidnapping]]s, [[rape]]s, and scary media events, as opposed to fantasy things (e.g., witches, [[monster]]s, ghosts).
[[Sigmund Freud]] termed this the [[latency period]], which he saw as a period of unparalleled repression of sexual desires and erogenous impulses. During the latency period, children direct this repressed libidal energy into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendships. He saw the latency period as a time of relative calm when there is little psychosexual conflict and unconscious conflicts and drives go underground and are therefore relatively inaccessible and unavailable. But soon [[puberty]] arrives, and the genitals once again become a central focus of libidal energy.
 
   
== Preteen and tween ==
+
Preadolescents may well view human [[Interpersonal relationship|relationship]]s differently (e.g. they may notice the flawed, human side of [[authority]] figures). Alongside that, they may begin to develop a sense of [[self (psychology)|self]]-[[Identity (social science)|identity]], and to have increased feelings of [[independence]]: 'may feel an individual, no longer "just one of the family."'<ref>E. Fenwick/T. Smith, ''Adolescence'' (London 1993) p. 29</ref> A different view on [[morality]] can emerge; and the middle child will also show more ''cooperativeness''. The ability to balance one's own needs with those of others in group activities'<ref>Goleman, p. 194</ref>
A '''preteen''' or a '''preteenager'''<ref name="NOAD2" /> is a person under the age of thirteen.<ref name="MWCD11" /> Generally the term is restricted to those close to reaching age 13,<ref name="NOAD2" /> especially ages 10–12.<ref name="AHDEL4" />
 
   
'''Tween''' is an [[United States of America|American]] [[neologism]] and [[marketing]] term<ref name="FamiliarWithTweens">[http://tourismintelligence.ca/author/maithe/ Levasseur, Maïthé] (2007-02-09). [http://tourismintelligence.ca/2007/02/09/familiar-with-tweens-you-should-be/ Familiar with tweens? You should be...]. The Tourism Intelligence Network. Retrieved on 2007-12-04.
+
Greater responsibility within the family can also appear, as middle children become responsible for younger siblings and relatives, as with [[babysitting]]; while preadolescents may start caring about what they look like and what they are wearing.
</ref> for preteen. A [[blend]] of ''between'' and ''teen'',<ref name="MWCD11">Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Eleventh Edition. 2003. Merriam-Webster.</ref><ref name="AHDEL4">The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Fourth Edition. 2000. Houghton Mifflin Company.</ref> "tween" in this context is generally considered to cover the age range from eight to twelve years.<ref name="AHDEL4" />
 
   
The term was previously used in J.R.R. Tolkien's 1954 novel ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' to refer to [[Hobbits]] in their twenties: "''...[[Tween (hobbit)|tweens]]'' as Hobbits called the irresponsible twenties between childhood and the coming of age at thirty-three."<ref>Tolkien, J.R.R. ''The Lord of the Rings; The Fellowship of the Ring '' Copyright 1965 by J.R.R Tolkien; Ballantine Books, A Division of Random House Inc. SBN 345-24032-4-150 </ref> In this context, the word is a [[Portmanteau word|portmanteau]] of ''twenty'' and ''teen'', and has no connection to preteens or the American marketing niche.
+
Middle children often begin to experience [[infatuation]], [[limerence]], [[puppy love]], or [[love]] itself, though arguably at least with 'girls carrying out all the romantic interest....preadolescent girls' romantic pursuits often seem to be more aggressive than affectionate.'<ref>Giselle Liza Anatol, ''Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays'' (2003) p. 20</ref>
  +
  +
Preadolescents may still suffer [[tantrum]]s at the age of 13, sometimes leading to rash decisions regarding risky actions. Such decisions may in rare cases result in grave situations such as accidental death.<ref name="dailymail 2008">{{cite news | url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-180677267.html | title=Boy aged 13 killed himself over Wii ban | work=[[Daily Mail]] | date=June 27, 2008 | accessdate=January 09, 2013}}{{Subscription required|via=[[HighBeam Research]]}}</ref>
  +
  +
===Home from home===
  +
  +
Where development has been optimal, preadolescents 'come to school for something to be added to their lives; they want to learn lessons...which can lead to their eventually working in a job like their parents.'<ref>D. W. Winnicott, ''The Child, the Family, and the Outside World'' (Penguin 1973) p. 207</ref> When earlier developmental stages have gone astray, however, then, on the principle that 'if you miss a stage, you can always go through it later,'<ref>Skynner/Cleese, p. 24</ref> some middle children 'come to school for another purpose...[not] to learn but to find a home from home...a stable emotional situation in which they can exercise their own emotional liability, a group of which they can gradually become a part.'<ref>Winnicott, p. 208</ref>
  +
  +
===Divorce===
  +
  +
'Children at the threshold of adolescence...in the nine-to-twelve-year-old group'<ref>Ann Charlton, ''Caught in the Middle'' (London 2003) p. 90</ref> would seem to have particular vulnerabilities to parental separation. Among such problems were the very 'eagerness of these youngsters to be co-opted into the parental battling; their willingness to take sides...and the intense, compassionate, caretaking relations which led these youngsters to attempt to rescue a distressed parent often to their own detriment'.<ref>Charlton, p. 90</ref>
  +
  +
===Media===
  +
Preadolescents may well be more exposed to [[popular culture]] than younger children and have interests based on internet trends, television shows and movies (no longer just cartoons), fashion, technology, and music. Preadolescents generally prefer certain [[brand]]s, and are a heavily targeted market of many advertisers. Their tendency to buy brand-name items may be due to a desire to fit in, although the desire is not as strong as it is with teenagers.
  +
  +
Some scholars suggest that 'pre-adolescents...reported frequent encounters with sexual material in the media, valued the information received from it, and used it as a learning resource...and evaluated such content through what they perceived to be sexual morality.'<ref>Dafna Lemish, ''Children and Television'' (Oxford 2007) p. 116</ref> However, other research has suggested that sexual media influences on preadolescent and adolescent sexual behavior is minimal.<ref>Steinberg, L., & Monahan, K. 2010. Developmental Psychology.</ref>
  +
  +
==Freud==
  +
[[Sigmund Freud|Freud]] called this stage the ''[[latency stage|latency]]'' period to indicate that sexual feelings and interest went underground...the ''feelings'' that create that first "eternal triangle" with the parents fade, and free energy for other interests and activities.'<ref>Robin Skynner/John Cleese, ''Families and how to survive them'' (London 1994) p. 271 and p. 242</ref> [[Erik H. Erikson]] confirmed that 'violent drives are normally dormant...a lull before the storm of [[puberty]], when all the earlier drives re-emerge in a new combination, to be brought under the dominance of genitality.'<ref>Erik H Erikson, ''[[Childhood and Society]]'' (Penguin 1973) p. 252</ref>
  +
  +
Latency period children can then direct more of their energy into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendships: middle childhood especially is marked by 'the importance of school, teams, classes, friends, gangs and organised activities...and the adults who run those.'<ref>Lisa Miller, ''Understanding Your 8 year old'' (London 1993) p. 26</ref> Nevertheless recent research suggests that 'most children do not cease sexual development, interest and behavior' at this time: rather, they 'cease to share their interest with adults and are less frequently observed.'<ref>Ryan, ''Juvenile'' p. 41-2</ref> Because 'they've learned the rules...[they] fit in with the grown-up's ''belief'' that they're not interested. But the curiosity about it all continues, and there's quite a lot of experimenting going on between them.'<ref>Skynner/Cleese, ''Families'' p. 271</ref> alongside other pursuits
  +
  +
But while the eight-year-old still has 'years to wait until puberty, adolescence and finally sexual maturity...a sort of lull before puberty arrives,'<ref>Miller, p. 23 and p. 75</ref> with preadolescence proper (9-12), and the move forward from middle childhood, what have been called 'the introspective and social concerns of the prepubescent'<ref>Michell Landsberg, ''The World of Children's Books'' (London 1988) p. 270</ref> tend to come more to the fore. Clearly 'few experiences are more prominent in the lives of preadolescents than the onset of puberty';<ref>Anatol, ''Potter'' p. 21</ref> so that 'at eleven or twelve you're just reaching the end of a long period during which change was steady and incremental':<ref>Francis Spufford, ''The Child that Books Built'' (London 2002) p. 163</ref> Freud's latency years.
  +
  +
==Gender relations==
  +
  +
'A greater complexity in gender relation in preadolescence'<ref>Corsaro, p. 221</ref> clearly develops. Whereas 'three-year-olds say about half their friends are of the opposite sex...by age seven almost no boys or girls say they have a best friend of the opposite sex. These separate universes intersect little until teenagers start dating.'<ref>Goleman, p. 130</ref>
  +
  +
== Preteen and tween ==
  +
A '''preteen''' or a '''preteenager'''<ref name="NOAD2" /> is a person 12 and under.<ref name="MWCD11" /> Generally, the term is restricted to those close to reaching age 12,<ref name="NOAD2" /> especially age 11.<ref name="AHDEL4" /> [[Tween (demographic)|Tween]] is an [[United States of America|American]] [[neologism]] and [[marketing]] term<ref name="FamiliarWithTweens">[http://tourismintelligence.ca/author/maithe/ Levasseur, Maïthé] (2007-02-09). [http://tourismintelligence.ca/2007/02/09/familiar-with-tweens-you-should-be/ Familiar with tweens? You should be...]. The Tourism Intelligence Network. Retrieved on 2007-12-04.
  +
</ref> for preteen, which is a [[blend]] of ''between'' and ''teen''.<ref name="MWCD11">Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Eleventh Edition. 2003. Merriam-Webster.</ref><ref name="AHDEL4">The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Fourth Edition. 2000. Houghton Mifflin Company.</ref>
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
   
Myers, James. "Tweens and cool" [http://www.admapmagazine.com/pdfs/myers.pdf], ''Admap'', March 2004.
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{{start box}}
 
{{start box}}
 
{{succession box|title=[[Human development (biology)|Stages of human development]]<br />Preadolescence|before=[[Childhood]]|after=[[Adolescence]]|years=}}
 
{{succession box|title=[[Human development (biology)|Stages of human development]]<br />Preadolescence|before=[[Childhood]]|after=[[Adolescence]]|years=}}

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Preadolescence is a stage of human development following early childhood and prior to adolescence.[1] It generally ends with the beginning of puberty, but may also be defined as ending with the start of the teenage years.[2][3][4] For example, dictionary definitions generally designate it as 10–13 years.[5] It may also be defined as the period from 9–14 years.[6][7] One can also distinguish middle childhood and preadolescence[6] - middle childhood from approximately 5–8 years, as opposed to the time children are generally considered to reach preadolescence (age 9–14 years).[7]

Preadolescence can bring its own challenges and anxieties, and, unlike most of the preceding phases, crucial elements of preadolescence are starkly different for boys and girls.[8]

SpanEdit

The point at which a child becomes an adolescent is defined by the onset of puberty or by the beginning of the teenage stage.[2][3][4] Adolescence is also viewed as ending with the teenage stage.[2] However, in some individuals (particularly females), puberty begins in the preadolescence years,[9] and adolescence may extend a few years beyond the teenage years in others (typically males).[10] Studies indicate that 'the onset of puberty has been one year earlier with each generation since the 1950s.'[11]

There is no exact agreement as to when preadolescence starts and ends, and research suggests that 'chronological time...is by no means identical with developmental time - the duration of the "inner" stages of growth' - or with physiological time.[12]

Child development stages

Approximate outline of development periods in child development. Preadolescence and preteen marked at center left.

Psychological developmentEdit

Main article: Developmental psychology

Of the 'two major socializing agents in children's lives: the family environment...and formal educational institutions,'[13] it is 'the family in its function a primary socializer of the child'[14] that predominates in the first five years of life: middle childhood by contrast is characterized by 'a child's readiness for school...being self-assured and interested; knowing what kind of behavior is expected...being able to wait, to follow directions, and getting along with other children.'[15]

Preadolescent children in fact have a different view of the world from younger children in many significant ways. Typically, theirs is a more realistic view of life than the intense, fantasy-oriented world of earliest childhood. Preadolescents have more mature, sensible, realistic thoughts and actions: 'the most "sensible" stage of development...the child is a much less emotional being now.'[16] They will often have developed a sense of ' intentionality. The wish and capacity to have an impact, and to act upon that with persistence';[17] and will have a more developed sense of looking into the future and seeing effects of their actions (as opposed to early childhood where children often do not worry about their future). This can include more realistic job expectations ("I want to be an engineer when I grow up", as opposed to "I want to be a wizard"). Middle children generally show more investment 'in control over external reality through the acquisition of knowledge and competence':[18] where they do have worries, these may be more a fear of kidnappings, rapes, and scary media events, as opposed to fantasy things (e.g., witches, monsters, ghosts).

Preadolescents may well view human relationships differently (e.g. they may notice the flawed, human side of authority figures). Alongside that, they may begin to develop a sense of self-identity, and to have increased feelings of independence: 'may feel an individual, no longer "just one of the family."'[19] A different view on morality can emerge; and the middle child will also show more cooperativeness. The ability to balance one's own needs with those of others in group activities'[20]

Greater responsibility within the family can also appear, as middle children become responsible for younger siblings and relatives, as with babysitting; while preadolescents may start caring about what they look like and what they are wearing.

Middle children often begin to experience infatuation, limerence, puppy love, or love itself, though arguably at least with 'girls carrying out all the romantic interest....preadolescent girls' romantic pursuits often seem to be more aggressive than affectionate.'[21]

Preadolescents may still suffer tantrums at the age of 13, sometimes leading to rash decisions regarding risky actions. Such decisions may in rare cases result in grave situations such as accidental death.[22]

Home from homeEdit

Where development has been optimal, preadolescents 'come to school for something to be added to their lives; they want to learn lessons...which can lead to their eventually working in a job like their parents.'[23] When earlier developmental stages have gone astray, however, then, on the principle that 'if you miss a stage, you can always go through it later,'[24] some middle children 'come to school for another purpose...[not] to learn but to find a home from home...a stable emotional situation in which they can exercise their own emotional liability, a group of which they can gradually become a part.'[25]

DivorceEdit

'Children at the threshold of adolescence...in the nine-to-twelve-year-old group'[26] would seem to have particular vulnerabilities to parental separation. Among such problems were the very 'eagerness of these youngsters to be co-opted into the parental battling; their willingness to take sides...and the intense, compassionate, caretaking relations which led these youngsters to attempt to rescue a distressed parent often to their own detriment'.[27]

MediaEdit

Preadolescents may well be more exposed to popular culture than younger children and have interests based on internet trends, television shows and movies (no longer just cartoons), fashion, technology, and music. Preadolescents generally prefer certain brands, and are a heavily targeted market of many advertisers. Their tendency to buy brand-name items may be due to a desire to fit in, although the desire is not as strong as it is with teenagers.

Some scholars suggest that 'pre-adolescents...reported frequent encounters with sexual material in the media, valued the information received from it, and used it as a learning resource...and evaluated such content through what they perceived to be sexual morality.'[28] However, other research has suggested that sexual media influences on preadolescent and adolescent sexual behavior is minimal.[29]

FreudEdit

Freud called this stage the latency period to indicate that sexual feelings and interest went underground...the feelings that create that first "eternal triangle" with the parents fade, and free energy for other interests and activities.'[30] Erik H. Erikson confirmed that 'violent drives are normally dormant...a lull before the storm of puberty, when all the earlier drives re-emerge in a new combination, to be brought under the dominance of genitality.'[31]

Latency period children can then direct more of their energy into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendships: middle childhood especially is marked by 'the importance of school, teams, classes, friends, gangs and organised activities...and the adults who run those.'[32] Nevertheless recent research suggests that 'most children do not cease sexual development, interest and behavior' at this time: rather, they 'cease to share their interest with adults and are less frequently observed.'[33] Because 'they've learned the rules...[they] fit in with the grown-up's belief that they're not interested. But the curiosity about it all continues, and there's quite a lot of experimenting going on between them.'[34] alongside other pursuits

But while the eight-year-old still has 'years to wait until puberty, adolescence and finally sexual maturity...a sort of lull before puberty arrives,'[35] with preadolescence proper (9-12), and the move forward from middle childhood, what have been called 'the introspective and social concerns of the prepubescent'[36] tend to come more to the fore. Clearly 'few experiences are more prominent in the lives of preadolescents than the onset of puberty';[37] so that 'at eleven or twelve you're just reaching the end of a long period during which change was steady and incremental':[38] Freud's latency years.

Gender relationsEdit

'A greater complexity in gender relation in preadolescence'[39] clearly develops. Whereas 'three-year-olds say about half their friends are of the opposite sex...by age seven almost no boys or girls say they have a best friend of the opposite sex. These separate universes intersect little until teenagers start dating.'[40]

Preteen and tween Edit

A preteen or a preteenager[1] is a person 12 and under.[41] Generally, the term is restricted to those close to reaching age 12,[1] especially age 11.[42] Tween is an American neologism and marketing term[43] for preteen, which is a blend of between and teen.[41][42]

See alsoEdit

References Edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 New Oxford American Dictionary. 2nd Edition. 2005. Oxford University Press.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 includeonly>"Puberty and adolescence", MedlinePlus. Retrieved on 2010-07-30.
  3. 3.0 3.1 The Theoretical Basis for the Life Model-Research And Resources On Human Development. URL accessed on 2009-08-11.
  4. 4.0 4.1 PSY 345 Lecture Notes - Ego Psychologists, Erik Erikson. URL accessed on 2009-08-11.
  5. Dictionary.com --> Definition of preadolescence (Based on the Random House Dictionary, 2009) Retrieved on July 5, 2009
  6. 6.0 6.1 William A. Corsaro, The Sociology of Childhood (2005) p. 191 and p. 124
  7. 7.0 7.1 Donald C. Freeman, Essays in Modern Stylistics (1981) p. 399
  8. Giselle Liza Anatol, Reading Harry Potter (2003) p. 18
  9. Onset of Breast and Pubic Hair Development in 1231 Preadolescent Lithuanian Schoolgirls. adc.bmj.com. URL accessed on 2007-12-06.
  10. Questions about Sex, Puberty, and Periods, for adolescents and their parents: 12. Puberty: Growing Up Early. rainbowpediatrics.net. URL accessed on 2007-12-06.
  11. G. Ryan et al, Juvenile Sexual Offending (2010) p. 42
  12. A. Gesell et al., Youth (London 1956) p. 20
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  16. Mavis Klein, Okay Parenting (1991) p. 13 and p. 78
  17. daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence (London 1996) p. 194
  18. Mavis Klein, Okay Parenting (1991) p. 13
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  20. Goleman, p. 194
  21. Giselle Liza Anatol, Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays (2003) p. 20
  22. includeonly>"Boy aged 13 killed himself over Wii ban", Daily Mail, June 27, 2008. Retrieved on January 09, 2013.Template:Subscription required
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  27. Charlton, p. 90
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  41. 41.0 41.1 Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Eleventh Edition. 2003. Merriam-Webster.
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  43. Levasseur, Maïthé (2007-02-09). Familiar with tweens? You should be.... The Tourism Intelligence Network. Retrieved on 2007-12-04.


Preceded by:
Childhood
Stages of human development
Preadolescence
Succeeded by:
Adolescence
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