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pontine tegmentum is a part of the pons of the brain involved in the initiation of REM sleep. It includes the pedunculopontine nucleus and the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, among others, and is located in close proximity to the raphe nucleus and the locus ceruleus.
Animal studies have shown that lesions of the pontine tegmentum can greatly reduce or even eliminate REM sleep. Injection of a
cholinergic agonist (e.g. carbachol), into the pontine tegmentum produces a state of REM sleep in cats.
PET studies seem to indicate that there is a correlation between blood flow in the pontine tegmentum, REM sleep, and dreaming.
Pontine waves (P-waves, or ponto-geniculate-occipital waves) are
brain waves generated in the pontine tegmentum. They can be observed in mammals, precede the onset of REM sleep, and continue throughout its course. After periods of memory training, P-wave density increases during subsequent sleep periods in rats. This may be an indication of a link between sleep and learning.
trapezoid body is part of the pontine tegmentum.
Brain: rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
surface: Locus ceruleus
Trigeminal lemniscus ( Dorsal trigeminal tract, Ventral trigeminal tract)
cranial nuclei: GSA: Principal V/ Spinal V - VIII-c ( Dorsal, Anterior)/ VIII-v ( Lateral, Superior, Medial, Inferior) - SVE: Motor V - VII - GSE: VI - GVE: VII: Superior salivary nucleus
MLF, III, IV and VI ( vestibulo-oculomotor fibers, medial vestibulospinal tract)
sensory/ascending: Trapezoid body/VIII - Superior olivary nucleus
Inferior cerebellar peduncle ( Vestibulocerebellar tract)
motor/descending: Apneustic center • Pneumotaxic center ( Medial parabrachial nucleus) - Lateral parabrachial nucleus
Middle cerebellar peduncles ( Pontocerebellar fibers) - Pontine nuclei motor/descending: Corticospinal tract - Corticobulbar tract - Corticopontine fibers
Reticular formation ( Caudal, Oral, Tegmental, Paramedian) • Raphe nuclei ( Median)
surface: Posterior median sulcus - Postero-lateral sulcus - Area postrema
cranial nuclei: GVA: VII,IX,X: Solitary/ tract • SVA: Gustatory nucleus • GSE: XII • GVE: IX,X,XI: Ambiguus • SVE: X: Dorsal • IX: Inferior salivatory nucleus - MLF, III, IV and VI
sensory/ascending: Gracile nucleus • Cuneate nucleus ( Accessory cuneate nucleus) • Sensory decussation • Medial lemniscus
motor/descending: Dorsal respiratory group
motor/descending: Ventral respiratory group - Pyramid ( Motor decussation) - Inferior olivary nucleus ( Olivocerebellar tract, Rubro-olivary tract) surface: Anterior median fissure - Antero-lateral sulcus - Arcuate nucleus of medulla - Olivary body
Reticular formation ( Gigantocellular, Parvocellular, Ventral, Lateral, Paramedian) • Raphe nuclei ( Obscurus, Magnus, Pallidus)