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:For use of polygraph as a lie detector see:[[Use of the polygraph in lie detection]]
 
:For use of polygraph as a lie detector see:[[Use of the polygraph in lie detection]]
   
[[Image:Patent 4333084.png|thumb|250px|Polygraph results are sometimes recorded on a [[chart recorder]]]]
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A '''polygraph''' (popularly referred to as a '''lie detector''') is an instrument that measures and records several physiological responses such as [[blood pressure]], [[pulse]], [[Respiration (physiology)|respiration]], breathing rhythms, body temperature and [[Galvanic skin response|skin conductivity]] while the subject is asked and answers a series of questions, on the theory that false answers will produce distinctive measurements. The polygraph measures physiological changes caused by the [[sympathetic nervous system]] during questioning. Within the US federal government, a polygraph examination is also referred to as a '''psychophysiological detection of deception''' (PDD) examination.
A '''polygraph''' (commonly yet incorrectly referred to as a ''lie detector'') is a device that measures and records several physiological variables such as [[blood pressure]],[[Respiration (physiology)|respiration]] and [[Galvanic skin response|skin conductivity]].
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Polygraphs are in some countries used as an interrogation tool with criminal suspects or candidates for sensitive public or private sector employment. The use and effectiveness of the polygraph is controversial, with the manner of its use and its validity subject to increasing criticism.
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
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The idea that lying produces physical side-effects has long been claimed. In [[West Africa]] persons suspected of a crime were made to pass a [[bird]]'s egg to one another.{{Fact|date=February 2007}} If a person broke the egg, then he or she was considered guilty, based on the idea that their nervousness was to blame. In [[ancient China]] the suspect held a handful of [[rice]] in his or her [[mouth]] during a prosecutor's speech.{{Fact|date=February 2007}} Because [[salivation]] was believed to cease at times of emotional [[anxiety]], the person was considered guilty if by the end of that speech the rice was dry.
   
The origins of the modern polygraph date to 1913, when [[William Moulton Marston]], a psychology student at [[Harvard University]], first used the [[systolic blood-pressure]] test as a method of lie detection. He wrote a second paper on the concept in 1915, when finishing his undergraduate studies. He entered [[Harvard Law School]] and graduated in 1918, re-publishing his earlier work in 1917. A more complex device recording both blood-pressure and galvanic skin response was invented by Dr. [[John A. Larson]] of the [[University of California]]
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Early devices for lie detection include an 1885 invention of [[Cesare Lombroso]] used to measure changes in blood pressure for police cases, a 1914 device by [[Vittorio Benussi]] used to measure breathing, and an abandoned project by American [[William Moulton Marston|William Marston]] which used blood pressure and [[galvanic skin response]] to examine German Prisoners Of War (POW).<ref>[http://www.nitv1.com/History.htm Nitv Llc<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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A device recording both blood-pressure and [[galvanic skin response]] was invented in 1921 by Dr. John A. Larson of the [[University of California]] and first applied in law enforcement work by the [[Berkeley, California|Berkeley]] Police Department under its nationally renowned police chief [[August Vollmer]]. Further work on this device was done by [[Leonarde Keeler]].<ref>[http://www.lie2me.net/thepolygraphmuseum/id12.html Leonarde Keeler and his Instruments<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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Several devices similar to Keeler's polygraph version included the Berkeley Psychograph, a blood pressure-pulse-respiration recorder developed by C. D. Lee in 1936<ref>Inbau, Fred E. Lie Detection and Criminal Interrogation, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1948</ref> and the Darrow Behavior Research Photopolygraph, which was developed and intended solely for behavior research experiments<ref>Inbau, Fred E. Lie Detection and Criminal Interrogation, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1948</ref><ref>Troville, P. V. "A History of Lie Detection," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 29 (6)-848 (1939); 30 (1):104 (1939)</ref>
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Makenzie wrote a second paper on the concept in 1915, when finishing his undergraduate studies. He entered [[Harvard Law School]] and graduated in 1918, re-publishing his earlier work in 1917.<ref>Marston, William M. "Systolic Blood Pressure Changes in Deception," ''Journal of Experimental Psychology,'' 2:117-163.</ref> According to their son, Marston's wife, [[Elizabeth Holloway Marston]], was also involved in the development of the systolic blood-pressure test: "According to Marston’s son, it was his mother Elizabeth, Marston’s wife, who suggested to him that 'When she got mad or excited, her blood pressure seemed to climb' (Lamb, 2001). Although Elizabeth is not listed as Marston’s collaborator in his early work, Lamb, Matte (1996), and others refer directly and indirectly to Elizabeth’s work on her husband’s deception research. She also appears in a picture taken in his polygraph laboratory in the 1920s (reproduced in Marston, 1938)."<ref>[http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10420&page=292 WILLIAM MOULTON MARSTON, THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, AND WONDER WOMAN]</ref><ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=USg-j9esZagC&pg=PA292&lpg=PA292&dq=elizabeth+marston+%22wonder+woman%22&source=web&ots=eL7Vd4wTR4&sig=pzvRdGsniz6h9-dGgEXdlyzdem4 The Polygraph and Lie Detection]</ref> The comic book character, [[Wonder Woman]] by William Marston (and influenced by Elizabeth Marston<ref name=bu>[http://www.bu.edu/alumni/bostonia/2001/fall/wonderwoman/ Who Was Wonder Woman? Long-ago LAW alumna Elizabeth Marston was the muse who gave us a superheroine]</ref><ref name=outtowns>[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE1DF1539F93BA25751C0A964958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print OUR TOWNS; She's Behind the Match For That Man of Steel]</ref> ) carries a [[Lasso of Truth|magic lasso]] which was modelled upon the pneumograph (breathing monitor) test.<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=USg-j9esZagC&pg=PA295&lpg=PA295&dq=wonder+woman+%22magic+lasso%22+marston+polygraph&source=web&ots=eL7W48wYVZ&sig=znyHik1Ucdr6yQUsZKn1jTpe4MI The Polygraph and Lie Detection, p.295]</ref><ref name=bu />
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Marston was the self proclaimed “father of the polygraph” despite his predecessor's contributions.
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Marston remained the device's primary advocate, lobbying for its use in the courts. In 1938 he published a book, ''The Lie Detector Test,'' wherein he documented the theory and use of the device.<ref>Marston, William Moulton. ''The Lie Detector''. New York: Richard R. Smith, 1938.</ref> In 1938 he appeared in advertising by the [[Gillette]] company claiming that the polygraph showed Gillette razors were better than the competition.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=[[Reason (magazine)|Reason magazine]]|date=2001-05|title=William Marston's Secret Identity|url=http://www.reason.com/news/show/28014.html}}</ref><ref>[http://www.antipolygraph.org/documents/marston-razor-high-res.pdf Now! Lie Detector Charts Emotional Effects of Shaving - 1938 Gillette Advertisement]</ref><ref>[http://www.antipolygraph.org/documents/marston-fbi-file.pdf FBI File of William Moulton Marston] (including report on Gillette advertising campaign) </ref>
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A device which recorded muscular activity accompanying changes in blood pressure was developed in 1945 by John E. Reid, who claimed that greater accuracy could be obtained by making these recordings simultaneously with standard blood pressure-pulse-respiration recordings.<ref>Inbau, Fred E. Lie Detection and Criminal Interrogation, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1948</ref><ref>Reid, J. E. "Simulated Blood Pressure Responses in Lie-Detection Tests and a Method for Their Deception," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 36 (1):201-215 (1945)</ref>
   
 
==Construction and design==
 
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==Manufacturers and models==
 
==Manufacturers and models==
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==See also==
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* [[Legal interrogation]]
   
   
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For use of polygraph as a lie detector see:Use of the polygraph in lie detection

A polygraph (popularly referred to as a lie detector) is an instrument that measures and records several physiological responses such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, breathing rhythms, body temperature and skin conductivity while the subject is asked and answers a series of questions, on the theory that false answers will produce distinctive measurements. The polygraph measures physiological changes caused by the sympathetic nervous system during questioning. Within the US federal government, a polygraph examination is also referred to as a psychophysiological detection of deception (PDD) examination.

Polygraphs are in some countries used as an interrogation tool with criminal suspects or candidates for sensitive public or private sector employment. The use and effectiveness of the polygraph is controversial, with the manner of its use and its validity subject to increasing criticism.

HistoryEdit

The idea that lying produces physical side-effects has long been claimed. In West Africa persons suspected of a crime were made to pass a bird's egg to one another.[How to reference and link to summary or text] If a person broke the egg, then he or she was considered guilty, based on the idea that their nervousness was to blame. In ancient China the suspect held a handful of rice in his or her mouth during a prosecutor's speech.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Because salivation was believed to cease at times of emotional anxiety, the person was considered guilty if by the end of that speech the rice was dry.

Early devices for lie detection include an 1885 invention of Cesare Lombroso used to measure changes in blood pressure for police cases, a 1914 device by Vittorio Benussi used to measure breathing, and an abandoned project by American William Marston which used blood pressure and galvanic skin response to examine German Prisoners Of War (POW).[1]

A device recording both blood-pressure and galvanic skin response was invented in 1921 by Dr. John A. Larson of the University of California and first applied in law enforcement work by the Berkeley Police Department under its nationally renowned police chief August Vollmer. Further work on this device was done by Leonarde Keeler.[2]

Several devices similar to Keeler's polygraph version included the Berkeley Psychograph, a blood pressure-pulse-respiration recorder developed by C. D. Lee in 1936[3] and the Darrow Behavior Research Photopolygraph, which was developed and intended solely for behavior research experiments[4][5]

Makenzie wrote a second paper on the concept in 1915, when finishing his undergraduate studies. He entered Harvard Law School and graduated in 1918, re-publishing his earlier work in 1917.[6] According to their son, Marston's wife, Elizabeth Holloway Marston, was also involved in the development of the systolic blood-pressure test: "According to Marston’s son, it was his mother Elizabeth, Marston’s wife, who suggested to him that 'When she got mad or excited, her blood pressure seemed to climb' (Lamb, 2001). Although Elizabeth is not listed as Marston’s collaborator in his early work, Lamb, Matte (1996), and others refer directly and indirectly to Elizabeth’s work on her husband’s deception research. She also appears in a picture taken in his polygraph laboratory in the 1920s (reproduced in Marston, 1938)."[7][8] The comic book character, Wonder Woman by William Marston (and influenced by Elizabeth Marston[9][10] ) carries a magic lasso which was modelled upon the pneumograph (breathing monitor) test.[11][9]

Marston was the self proclaimed “father of the polygraph” despite his predecessor's contributions. Marston remained the device's primary advocate, lobbying for its use in the courts. In 1938 he published a book, The Lie Detector Test, wherein he documented the theory and use of the device.[12] In 1938 he appeared in advertising by the Gillette company claiming that the polygraph showed Gillette razors were better than the competition.[13][14][15]

A device which recorded muscular activity accompanying changes in blood pressure was developed in 1945 by John E. Reid, who claimed that greater accuracy could be obtained by making these recordings simultaneously with standard blood pressure-pulse-respiration recordings.[16][17]

Construction and designEdit

Manufacturers and modelsEdit

See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

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