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{{SpecPsy}}
 
{{Politics}}
 
{{Politics}}
'''Political science''' is an [[academia|academic]] and [[research]] discipline that deals with the theory and practice of [[politics]] and the description and [[analysis]] of [[political system]]s and political behavior.
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'''Political science''' is a branch of [[social science]] concerned with theory, description, analysis and prediction of [[political behavior]], [[political systems]] and [[politics]] broadly-construed. [[Political psychology]] is a specialist area within political science.
   
Fields and subfields of political science include [[political philosophy|political theory and philosophy]], [[civics]] and [[comparative politics]], national systems, cross-national political analysis, political development, [[international relations]], [[foreign policy]], [[international law]] and politics, [[public administration]], administrative behavior, public law, judicial behavior, and politics and [[public policy]]. Political science also studies [[power in international relations]] and the theory of [[Great power]]s and [[Superpower|Superpowers]].
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== Overview ==
  +
Political scientists study the allocation and transfer of power in decision-making, the roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizations, political behavior and public policies. They measure the success of [[governance]] and specific policies by examining many factors, including stability, justice, material wealth, and peace. Some political scientists seek to advance [[positive (social sciences)|positive]] theses by analyzing politics. Others advance [[normative]] theses, by making specific policy recommendations.
   
'''Political science''' is methodologically diverse. Approaches to the discipline include classical political philosophy, [[interpretivism]], [[structuralism]], and [[behavioralism]], [[realism]], pluralism, and [[institutionalism]]. Political science, as one of the [[social science]]s, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents and official records, secondary sources such as scholarly journal articles, [[survey]] research, [[statistical analysis]], [[case studies]], and model building.
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The study of politics is complicated by the occasional involvement of political scientists in the political process, since their teachings occasionally provide the frameworks within which other commentators, such as journalists, special interest groups, politicians, and the [[electorate]] analyze issues and select options. Political scientists may serve as advisers to specific politicians, or even run for office as politicians themselves. Political scientists can be found working in governments, in political parties or as civil servants. They may be involved with [[non-governmental organizations]] (NGOs) or political movements. In a variety of capacities, people educated and trained in political science can add value and expertise to corporations. Private enterprises such as [[think tank]]s, research institutes, polling and public relations firms often employ political scientists. In the United States, political scientists known as "Americanists" look at a variety of data including [[elections]], [[public opinion]] and public policy such as Social Security reform, foreign policy, U.S. congressional power, and the [[United States Supreme Court|U.S. Supreme Court]]—to name only a few issues.
   
[[Herbert Baxter Adams]] is credited with coining the phrase "political science" while teaching history at [[Johns Hopkins University]].
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Most [[United States|American]] [[Higher education in the United States|colleges and universities]] offer B.A. programs in political science. M.A. and Ph.D programs are common at larger universities. Some universities offer B.S or M.S. degrees.<ref>Schools offering the B.S. or M.S. in political science include: [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]], [[University of Idaho]], [[Arizona State University]], [[Northern Arizona University]] and others.</ref> The term ''political science'' has an American flavour; other institutions, especially those outside the United States, see political science as part of a broader discipline of ''political studies,'' ''politics,'' or ''government.'' While ''political science'' implies use of the scientific method, ''political studies'' implies a broader approach, although the naming of degree courses does not necessarily reflect their content.<ref> See the example of [[New York University]] in particular. The term '''politics''' is used at:
  +
* [[University of California, Santa Cruz]], [[Ursinus College]], [[Brandeis University]], [[Cornell College]], [[Occidental College]], [[New York University]], [[Monash University]], [[Mount Holyoke College]], [[Princeton University]], [[Hendrix College]], and [[Washington and Lee University]]
  +
The term '''government''' is used by:
  +
* [[Smith College]], [[Colby College]], [[Dartmouth College]], [[Harvard University]], [[Cornell University]], [[Georgetown University]], the [[University of Texas at Austin]], the [[College of William and Mary]], the [[University of Sydney]], the [[University of Ulster]], the [[University of Essex]], [[Victoria University of Wellington]] (which has both a School of Government and a separate Political Science and International Relations Programme) and the [[London School of Economics|London School of Economics and Political Science]] to describe the field.
  +
The term '''politics and government''' is used by: [[University of Puget Sound]].</ref>
   
==History of political science==
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== History ==
  +
[[Image:Santi di Tito - Niccolo Machiavelli's portrait headcrop.jpg|thumb|right|[[Niccolò Machiavelli]], one of the most influential political scientists]]
 
{{main|History of political science}}
 
{{main|History of political science}}
===Antecedents of political science===
 
While the study of politics is first found in the [[Western tradition]] in [[Ancient Greece]], political science is a late arrival in terms of [[social sciences]]. However, the discipline has a clear set of antecedents such as [[moral philosophy]], [[political philosophy]], [[political economy]], [[history]], and other fields concerned with [[normative]] determinations of what ought to be and with [[deduction|deducing]] the characteristics and functions of the ideal [[state]]. In each historic period and in almost every geographic area, we can find someone studying politics and increasing political understanding.
 
   
The antecedents of politics trace their roots back even earlier than [[Plato]] and [[Aristotle]], particularly in the works of [[Homer]], [[Hesiod]], [[Thucydides]], [[Xenophon]], and [[Euripides]]. Later, Plato analyzed political systems, abstracted their analysis from more [[literary]]- and [[history]]- oriented studies and applied an approach we would understand as closer to [[philosophy]]. Similarly, Aristotle built upon Plato's analysis to include historical empirical evidence in his analysis.
+
=== Antecedents ===
  +
Political science is a late arrival in terms of [[social sciences]]. However, the discipline has a clear set of antecedents such as [[moral philosophy]], [[political philosophy]], [[political economy]], [[history]], and other fields concerned with [[normative]] determinations of what ought to be and with [[deduction|deducing]] the characteristics and functions of the ideal [[state]]. In each historic period and in almost every geographic area, we can find someone studying politics and increasing political understanding.
   
During the rule of [[Rome]], famous historians such as [[Polybius]], [[Livy]] and [[Plutarch]] documented the rise of the Roman [[Republic]], and the organization and histories of other nations, while [[statesman|statesmen]] like [[Julius Caesar]], [[Cicero]] and others provided us with examples of the politics of the republic and Rome's empire and wars. The study of politics during this age was oriented toward understanding history, understanding methods of governing, and describing the operation of governments.
+
In [[History of India|ancient India]], the antecedents of politics can be traced back to the ''[[Rig-Veda]]'', ''[[Samhita]]s'', ''[[Brahmana]]s'', and [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] ''[[Pali Canon]]''. [[Chanakya]] (c. 350-275 BC) was a professor of political science at [[Takshashila University]], and later the [[Prime Minister]] of [[Maurya Empire|Mauryan]] emperor [[Chandragupta Maurya]]. Chanakya is regarded as one of the earliest [[political philosophy|political thinkers]], and is also known as the Indian [[Niccolò Machiavelli|Machiavelli]]. He wrote the ''[[Arthashastra]]'', which was one of the earliest treatises on political thought, [[economics]] and social order, and can be considered a precursor to Machiavelli's ''[[The Prince]]''. It discusses monetary and fiscal policies, welfare, international relations, and war strategies in detail, among other topics on political science.The ancient Tamil literary work Thirukural written 2000 years back has extensively dealt with political science.The topics discussed by Thirukural include the art of public administration, warfare, political diplomacy, civil society, espionage, qualifications for public office, public revenue and financial administration and local administration.
   
With the [[fall of the Roman Empire]], there arose a more diffuse arena for political studies. The rise of [[monotheism]] and, particularly for the Western tradition, [[Christianity]], brought to light a new space for politics and political action. During the [[Middle Ages]], the study of politics was widespread in the churches and courts. Works such as [[Augustine of Hippo]]'s ''[[The City of God]]'' synthesized current philosophies and political traditions with those of [[Christianity]], redefining the borders between what was religious and what was political. Most of the political questions surrounding the relationship between [[church]] and state were clarified and contested in this period.
+
The antecedents of Western politics can also trace their roots back even earlier than [[Plato]] and [[Aristotle]], particularly in the works of [[Homer]], [[Hesiod]], [[Thucydides]], [[Xenophon]], and [[Euripides]]. Later, Plato analysed political systems, abstracted their analysis from more literary- and history- oriented studies and applied an approach we would understand as closer to [[philosophy]]. Similarly, Aristotle built upon Plato's analysis to include historical empirical evidence in his analysis.
   
In the [[Middle East]] and later other [[Islam]]ic areas, works such as the [[Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam]] and Epic of Kings by [[Ferdowsi]] provided evidence of political analysis, while the [[Islamic]] [[aristotelians]] such as [[Avicenna]] and later [[Maimonides]] and [[Averroes]], continued [[Aristotle]]'s tradition of analysis and [[empiricism]], writing commentaries on Aristotle's works.
+
During the rule of Rome, famous historians such as [[Polybius]], [[Livy]] and [[Plutarch]] documented the rise of the [[Roman Republic]], and the organization and histories of other nations, while statesmen like [[Julius Caesar]], [[Cicero]] and others provided us with examples of the politics of the republic and Rome's empire and wars. The study of politics during this age was oriented toward understanding history, understanding methods of governing, and describing the operation of governments.
 
During the [[Italian Renaissance]], [[Niccolò Machiavelli]] established the emphasis of modern political science on direct [[empirical]] [[observation]] of political [[institution]]s and actors. Later, the expansion of the scientific paradigm during the [[the Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]] further pushed the study of politics beyond normative determinations.
 
   
===Political science===
+
With the fall of the Roman Empire, there arose a more diffuse arena for political studies. The rise of monotheism and, particularly for the Western tradition, [[Christianity]], brought to light a new space for politics and political action. Works such as [[Augustine of Hippo]]'s ''[[The City of God]]'' synthesized current philosophies and political traditions with those of Christianity, redefining the borders between what was religious and what was political. During the [[Middle Ages]], the study of politics was widespread in the churches and courts. Most of the political questions surrounding the relationship between [[church and state]] were clarified and contested in this period.
The advent of political science as a university discipline is evidenced by the naming of university departments and chairs with the title of political science arising in the 1860s. Integrating political studies of the past into a unified discipline is ongoing, and the history of political science has provided a rich field for the growth of both normative and [[positive (social sciences)|positive]] political science, with each part of the discipline sharing some historical predecessors. The [[American Political Science Association]] was founded in 1903 in an effort to distinguish the study of politics from economics and other social phenomenon.
 
   
In the 1950s and the 1960s, a behavioral revolution stressing the systematic and rigorously scientific study of individual and group behavior swept the discipline. At the same time that political science moved toward greater depth of analysis and more sophistication, it also moved toward a closer working relationship with other disciplines, especially [[sociology]], [[economics]], [[history]], [[anthropology]], [[psychology]], and [[statistics]]. Increasingly, students of political behavior have used the scientific method to create an intellectual discipline based on the postulating of hypotheses followed by empirical verification and the inference of political trends, and of generalizations that explain individual and group political actions. Over the past generation, the discipline placed an increasing emphasis on relevance, or the use of new approaches and methodologies to solve political and social problems.
+
In the Middle East and later other Islamic areas, works such as the [[Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam]] and Epic of Kings by [[Ferdowsi]] provided evidence of political analysis, while the [[Islamic]] [[Aristotelianism|Aristotelians]] such as [[Avicenna]] and later [[Maimonides]] and [[Averroes]], continued [[Aristotle]]'s tradition of analysis and [[empiricism]], writing commentaries on Aristotle's works.
  +
  +
During the Italian Renaissance, Niccolò Machiavelli established the emphasis of modern political science on direct [[empirical]] observation of political institutions and actors. Later, the expansion of the scientific paradigm during the [[the Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]] further pushed the study of politics beyond normative determinations.
   
==Contemporary political science==
+
[[Herbert Baxter Adams]] coined the phrase 'Political Science' while a professor at [[Johns Hopkins University]].
[[Political scientist]]s study the allocation and transfer of [[power (sociology)|power]] in decision-making, the roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizations, political behavior and public policies. They measure the success of [[governance]] and specific policies by examining many factors, including stability, [[justice]], [[material wealth]], and [[peace]]. Some political scientists seek to advance [[positive (social sciences)|positive]] theses by analyzing politics. Others advance [[normative]] theses, by making specific policy recommendations.
 
   
The study of politics is complicated by the frequent involvement of [[political scientist]]s in the political process, since their teachings often provide the frameworks within which other commentators, such as [[journalist]]s, [[special interest group]]s, [[politician]]s, and the [[electorate]] analyze issues and select options. Political scientists may serve as advisors to specific politicians, or even run for office as politicians themselves. Political scientists can be found working in governments, in political parties or as civil servants. They may be involved with [[non-governmental organizations]] (NGOs) or political movements. In a variety of capacities, people educated and trained in political science can add value and expertise to corporations. Private enterprises such as [[think tank]]s, research institutes, polling and public relations firms often employ political scientists. In the United States, political scientists known as "Americanists" look at a variety of data including [[elections]], [[public opinion]] and public policy such as [[Social Security]] reform, foreign policy, U.S. congressional power, and the [[Supreme Court]] to name only a few issues.
+
=== Studies ===
  +
The advent of political science as a university discipline is evidenced by the naming of university departments and chairs with the title of political science arising in the 1860s. In fact, the designation "political scientist" is typically reserved for those with a doctorate in the field. Integrating political studies of the past into a unified discipline is ongoing, and the history of political science has provided a rich field for the growth of both normative and [[positive (social sciences)|positive]] political science, with each part of the discipline sharing some historical predecessors. The [[American Political Science Association]] was founded in 1903 and the [[American Political Science Review]] was founded in 1906 in an effort to distinguish the study of politics from economics and other social phenomena.
   
==Current fields of study==
+
In the 1950s and the 1960s, a behavioural revolution stressing the systematic and rigorously scientific study of individual and group behaviour swept the discipline. At the same time that political science moved toward greater depth of analysis, it also moved toward a closer working relationship with other disciplines, especially [[sociology]], [[economics]], [[history]], [[anthropology]], [[psychology]], [[public administration]] and [[statistics]].{{Fact|date=February 2007}} Increasingly, students of political behaviour have used the scientific method to create an intellectual discipline based on the postulating of hypotheses followed by empirical verification and the inference of political trends, and of generalizations that explain individual and group political actions. Over the past generation, the discipline placed an increasing emphasis on relevance, or the use of new approaches and methodologies to solve political and social problems.
[[Civics]] and [[comparative politics]] involve the comparison of different [[form of government|forms of government]] in different settings. In the [[United States]] and [[Canada]], it may also include regional studies; that is, work focusing on a particular state, province or region.
 
   
Political theory involves the study of normative questions of [[government]], [[ideology]], regimes, movements, and the history of [[political philosophy]].
+
Political science has, broadly, five subfields: [[international relations]], [[political theory]], [[public policy]] and [[public administration]], [[national politics]], and [[comparative politics]]. Separate degree granting programs in international relations and public policy are not uncommon at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Master's level programs in public administration are common.
   
[[International relations]] focuses on the study of the dynamics of relations between states, and, more recently, on transnational issues such as the [[natural_environment|environment]], [[human trafficking]], [[trade]], [[social movements]], [[labor]] like [[co-operatives]], or preventing [[terrorism]].
+
The national honour society for college and university students of government and politics in the United States is [[Pi Sigma Alpha]].
   
The complex interplay of [[economic]] and political choices is reflected in the field of [[political economy]] where political science tries to understand the normative implications of economic structures and theories.
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== References ==
  +
<references/>
   
[[Public Administration]] studies the implementation, determination and outputs of public policies. It seeks to explain the role of political structure, [[bureaucratic]] politics and [[interest group]] activity on the [[public policy]] output and the policy performance of [[public sector]] entities.
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== Further reading ==
  +
*''American Political Science Review'' - [http://www.apsanet.org/section_714.cfm The Evolution of Political Science]. APSR Centennial Volume - Special Issue - November 2006
  +
*''Klingemann, Hans-Dieter (ed.): The State of Political Science in Western Europe.'' Opladen: Barbara Budrich Publishers 2007, ISBN 978-3-86649-045-3
  +
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=kyJ5GJ7DeMQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=making+political+science+matter&sig=s_bqA18zhy02NKJwsJHJj3vHzKc Schram, Sanford F. and Brian Caterino (eds.) ''Making Political Science Matter: Debating Knowledge, Research, and Method''. New York and London: New York University Press, 2006.]
   
Political elites and political behavior, and the interplay between them, are studied in the field of [[political psychology]].
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== See also ==
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{{multicol}}
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; Listings
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* [[List of basic political science topics|Political science topics]]
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* [[List of political scientists]]
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* [[Politics of present-day nations and states|Present nations and states]]
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* [[:Category:Political science books|Political science books]]
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* [[:Category:Political science terms|Political science terms]]
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{{multicol-break}}
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;Related topics
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* [[Debate]]
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* [[Diplomacy]]
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* [[Freedom of speech]]
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* [[Freedom of the press]]
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* [[Government]]
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* [[Jurisdiction]]
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{{multicol-break}}
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* [[Law]]
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* [[Legal system]]
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* [[Metapolitics]]
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* [[Nation]]
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* [[Politics]]
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* [[Policy]]
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* [[State]]
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* [[War]]
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{{multicol-end}}
   
Alternative terms for the academic study of politics are '''political studies,''' or even '''politics.''' While '''political science''' implies use of the scientific method, '''political studies''' implies a broader approach. The term '''government''' is used by [[Dartmouth College]], [[Harvard University]], [[Georgetown University]], [[Cornell University]] and the [[London School of Economics]] to describe the field, but the choice of a label for a department often has little to do with how the subject is studied.
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==External links==
 
==See also==
 
 
{{Wikibookspar|Wikiversity|School of Political Science}}
 
{{Wikibookspar|Wikiversity|School of Political Science}}
*[[List of political scientists]]
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{{Commons|Category:Political science|Political science}}
*[[Political science basic topics]]
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* [http://www.apsanet.org/ American Political Science Association]
*[[:Category:Political science terms]]
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* [http://www.ipsa.ca/ International Political Science Association]
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* [http://www.psa.ac.uk/ Political Studies Association of the UK]
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* [http://www.politicalscience.org/ PROL: Political Science Research Online (prepublished research)]
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* [http://www2.truman.edu/polisci/design.htm Truman State University Political Science Research Design Handbook]
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* [http://dca.tufts.edu/features/aas A New Nation Votes: American Elections Returns 1787-1825]
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[[Category:Political science| ]]
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[[Category:Political science|*]]
 
[[Category:Social sciences]]
 
[[Category:Social sciences]]
   
{{EnWP|Political science}}
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Political Science
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Political psychology
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Political economic systems
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Biopolitics Genopolitics Neuropolitics


Political science is a branch of social science concerned with theory, description, analysis and prediction of political behavior, political systems and politics broadly-construed. Political psychology is a specialist area within political science.

Overview Edit

Political scientists study the allocation and transfer of power in decision-making, the roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizations, political behavior and public policies. They measure the success of governance and specific policies by examining many factors, including stability, justice, material wealth, and peace. Some political scientists seek to advance positive theses by analyzing politics. Others advance normative theses, by making specific policy recommendations.

The study of politics is complicated by the occasional involvement of political scientists in the political process, since their teachings occasionally provide the frameworks within which other commentators, such as journalists, special interest groups, politicians, and the electorate analyze issues and select options. Political scientists may serve as advisers to specific politicians, or even run for office as politicians themselves. Political scientists can be found working in governments, in political parties or as civil servants. They may be involved with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or political movements. In a variety of capacities, people educated and trained in political science can add value and expertise to corporations. Private enterprises such as think tanks, research institutes, polling and public relations firms often employ political scientists. In the United States, political scientists known as "Americanists" look at a variety of data including elections, public opinion and public policy such as Social Security reform, foreign policy, U.S. congressional power, and the U.S. Supreme Court—to name only a few issues.

Most American colleges and universities offer B.A. programs in political science. M.A. and Ph.D programs are common at larger universities. Some universities offer B.S or M.S. degrees.[1] The term political science has an American flavour; other institutions, especially those outside the United States, see political science as part of a broader discipline of political studies, politics, or government. While political science implies use of the scientific method, political studies implies a broader approach, although the naming of degree courses does not necessarily reflect their content.[2]

History Edit

File:Santi di Tito - Niccolo Machiavelli's portrait headcrop.jpg
Niccolò Machiavelli, one of the most influential political scientists
Main article: History of political science

Antecedents Edit

Political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. However, the discipline has a clear set of antecedents such as moral philosophy, political philosophy, political economy, history, and other fields concerned with normative determinations of what ought to be and with deducing the characteristics and functions of the ideal state. In each historic period and in almost every geographic area, we can find someone studying politics and increasing political understanding.

In ancient India, the antecedents of politics can be traced back to the Rig-Veda, Samhitas, Brahmanas, and Buddhist Pali Canon. Chanakya (c. 350-275 BC) was a professor of political science at Takshashila University, and later the Prime Minister of Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. Chanakya is regarded as one of the earliest political thinkers, and is also known as the Indian Machiavelli. He wrote the Arthashastra, which was one of the earliest treatises on political thought, economics and social order, and can be considered a precursor to Machiavelli's The Prince. It discusses monetary and fiscal policies, welfare, international relations, and war strategies in detail, among other topics on political science.The ancient Tamil literary work Thirukural written 2000 years back has extensively dealt with political science.The topics discussed by Thirukural include the art of public administration, warfare, political diplomacy, civil society, espionage, qualifications for public office, public revenue and financial administration and local administration.

The antecedents of Western politics can also trace their roots back even earlier than Plato and Aristotle, particularly in the works of Homer, Hesiod, Thucydides, Xenophon, and Euripides. Later, Plato analysed political systems, abstracted their analysis from more literary- and history- oriented studies and applied an approach we would understand as closer to philosophy. Similarly, Aristotle built upon Plato's analysis to include historical empirical evidence in his analysis.

During the rule of Rome, famous historians such as Polybius, Livy and Plutarch documented the rise of the Roman Republic, and the organization and histories of other nations, while statesmen like Julius Caesar, Cicero and others provided us with examples of the politics of the republic and Rome's empire and wars. The study of politics during this age was oriented toward understanding history, understanding methods of governing, and describing the operation of governments.

With the fall of the Roman Empire, there arose a more diffuse arena for political studies. The rise of monotheism and, particularly for the Western tradition, Christianity, brought to light a new space for politics and political action. Works such as Augustine of Hippo's The City of God synthesized current philosophies and political traditions with those of Christianity, redefining the borders between what was religious and what was political. During the Middle Ages, the study of politics was widespread in the churches and courts. Most of the political questions surrounding the relationship between church and state were clarified and contested in this period.

In the Middle East and later other Islamic areas, works such as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and Epic of Kings by Ferdowsi provided evidence of political analysis, while the Islamic Aristotelians such as Avicenna and later Maimonides and Averroes, continued Aristotle's tradition of analysis and empiricism, writing commentaries on Aristotle's works.

During the Italian Renaissance, Niccolò Machiavelli established the emphasis of modern political science on direct empirical observation of political institutions and actors. Later, the expansion of the scientific paradigm during the Enlightenment further pushed the study of politics beyond normative determinations.

Herbert Baxter Adams coined the phrase 'Political Science' while a professor at Johns Hopkins University.

Studies Edit

The advent of political science as a university discipline is evidenced by the naming of university departments and chairs with the title of political science arising in the 1860s. In fact, the designation "political scientist" is typically reserved for those with a doctorate in the field. Integrating political studies of the past into a unified discipline is ongoing, and the history of political science has provided a rich field for the growth of both normative and positive political science, with each part of the discipline sharing some historical predecessors. The American Political Science Association was founded in 1903 and the American Political Science Review was founded in 1906 in an effort to distinguish the study of politics from economics and other social phenomena.

In the 1950s and the 1960s, a behavioural revolution stressing the systematic and rigorously scientific study of individual and group behaviour swept the discipline. At the same time that political science moved toward greater depth of analysis, it also moved toward a closer working relationship with other disciplines, especially sociology, economics, history, anthropology, psychology, public administration and statistics.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Increasingly, students of political behaviour have used the scientific method to create an intellectual discipline based on the postulating of hypotheses followed by empirical verification and the inference of political trends, and of generalizations that explain individual and group political actions. Over the past generation, the discipline placed an increasing emphasis on relevance, or the use of new approaches and methodologies to solve political and social problems.

Political science has, broadly, five subfields: international relations, political theory, public policy and public administration, national politics, and comparative politics. Separate degree granting programs in international relations and public policy are not uncommon at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Master's level programs in public administration are common.

The national honour society for college and university students of government and politics in the United States is Pi Sigma Alpha.

References Edit

  1. Schools offering the B.S. or M.S. in political science include: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Idaho, Arizona State University, Northern Arizona University and others.
  2. See the example of New York University in particular. The term politics is used at: The term government is used by: The term politics and government is used by: University of Puget Sound.

Further reading Edit

See also Edit


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