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Pluralism is used in different ways across a wide range of topics. It denotes a diversity of views and stands rather than a single approach or method of interpretation:
- Cultural pluralism, when small groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities (see Multiculturalism)
- Epistemological pluralism, methodologies for determining what we know about a field
- Methodological pluralism, the view that some phenomena observed in science and social science require multiple methods to account for their nature
- Pluralism (industrial relations), recognition of a multiplicy of legitimate interests and stakeholders in the employment relationship
- Pluralism (philosophy) The examination of the idea that there can be more than one 'correct' or 'true' account of ethical, religious, cultural, and scientific beliefs.
- Pluralism (political philosophy), the acknowledgment of a diversity of political systems
- Pluralism (political theory), belief that there should be diverse and competing centres of power in society, so that there is a marketplace for ideas
- Educational pluralism, the belief that an educational community is enriched when individual differences are respected and welcomed.
- Religious pluralism, the acceptance of all religious paths as equally valid, promoting coexistence
- Scientific pluralism, the view that some phenomena observed in science require multiple explanations to account for their nature.
- Social pluralism, places the study of political phenomena on the ground where systematic explanation is the norm.
In philosophy Edit
- Epistemological pluralism, a set of untold truths about the world, but rather many
- Metaphysical pluralism, a doctrine according to which many basic substances make up reality
- Value pluralism, the idea that there are several values which may be equally correct and fundamental, and yet in conflict with each other