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Caption = Pituitary stalk not labeled, but is the vertical blue portion. |
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:''Also see [[infundibulum]] for other uses of the term.''
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:''Also see [[infundibulum (disambiguation)]] for other uses of the term.''
The '''pituitary stalk''' (also known as the '''infundibular stalk''' or simply the '''infundibulum''') is the connection between the [[hypothalamus]] and the [[posterior pituitary]].
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The '''pituitary stalk''' (also known as the '''infundibular stalk''' or simply the '''infundibulum''') is the connection between the [[hypothalamus]] and the [[posterior pituitary]]. The floor of the third ventricle is prolonged downward as a funnel-shaped recess, the infundibular recess, into the infundibulum, and to the apex of the latter the hypophysis or pituitary is attached.<ref>''Grey's Anatomy''</ref>
   
It carries [[axon]]s from the [[magnocellular neurosecretory cell]]s of the hypothalamus down to the posterior pituitary where they release their [[hormone]]s into the [[blood]].
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It carries [[axon]]s from the [[magnocellular neurosecretory cell]]s of the hypothalamus down to the posterior pituitary where they release their [[neurohypophysial hormone]]s, [[oxytocin]] and [[vasopressin]], into the [[blood]].
   
This connection is called the '''hypothalamic-hypophyseal''' [[tract]], and is responsible for the release of [[oxytocin]] and [[antidiuretic hormone]].
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This connection is called the '''hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract''' or '''hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract'''.
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==Compression==
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It has been thought that the pituitary stalk may become compressed due to [[suprasellar]] [[tumor]]s in the [[pars tuberalis]] region, and that the resulting compression may cause [[hyperprolactinemia]].<ref name=Skinner>{{cite journal | journal=Med hypotheses | volume=72 | issue=3 | page=309-310 | date=March 2009 | title=Rethinking the Stalk Effect: A New Hypothesis Explaining Suprasellar Tumor-Induced Hyperprolactinemia | last=Skinner | first=Donal | pmid=19028420 | accessdate=2012 June 29 | pmc=2668659 | doi=10.1016/j.mehy.2008.08.030}}</ref> This phenomenon has been described as the '''stalk effect''' or '''pituitary stalk compression syndrome'''.<ref name=Skinner/>
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However, at least one article suggests that the increase in prolactin in these cases may instead be caused by the tumor's secretion of [[preprotachykinin]] A derived [[tachykinin]]s, [[substance P]], and/or [[neurokinin A]].<ref name=Skinner/>
   
 
==Additional images==
 
==Additional images==
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Image:Gray1180.png|The [[hypophysis cerebri]] in position. Shown in [[sagittal]] section.
 
Image:Gray1180.png|The [[hypophysis cerebri]] in position. Shown in [[sagittal]] section.
 
Image:Gray1182.png|Vertical sections of the heads of early embryos of the rabbit. Magnified.
 
Image:Gray1182.png|Vertical sections of the heads of early embryos of the rabbit. Magnified.
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Image:Human brainstem anterior view 2 description.JPG|Human brainstem anterior view
 
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* {{eMedicineDictionary|Pituitary+stalk}}
 
* {{eMedicineDictionary|Pituitary+stalk}}
   
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
   
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{{neuroscience-stub}}
 
{{Diencephalon}}
 
{{Diencephalon}}
 
[[Category:Endocrine system]]
 
[[Category:Endocrine system]]
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{{enWP|Pituitary stalk}}
 
{{enWP|Pituitary stalk}}

Latest revision as of 15:38, October 3, 2013

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Brain: Pituitary stalk
Pituitary stalk not labeled, but is the vertical blue portion.
Basal view of a human brain (Infundibulum labeled third from the top on right)
Latin infundibulum neurohypophyseos
Gray's subject #189 813
Part of
Components
Artery
Vein
BrainInfo/UW hier-388
MeSH A06.407.747
Also see infundibulum (disambiguation) for other uses of the term.

The pituitary stalk (also known as the infundibular stalk or simply the infundibulum) is the connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary. The floor of the third ventricle is prolonged downward as a funnel-shaped recess, the infundibular recess, into the infundibulum, and to the apex of the latter the hypophysis or pituitary is attached.[1]

It carries axons from the magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus down to the posterior pituitary where they release their neurohypophysial hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, into the blood.

This connection is called the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract or hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract.

CompressionEdit

It has been thought that the pituitary stalk may become compressed due to suprasellar tumors in the pars tuberalis region, and that the resulting compression may cause hyperprolactinemia.[2] This phenomenon has been described as the stalk effect or pituitary stalk compression syndrome.[2]

However, at least one article suggests that the increase in prolactin in these cases may instead be caused by the tumor's secretion of preprotachykinin A derived tachykinins, substance P, and/or neurokinin A.[2]

Additional imagesEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Grey's Anatomy
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Skinner, Donal (March 2009). Rethinking the Stalk Effect: A New Hypothesis Explaining Suprasellar Tumor-Induced Hyperprolactinemia. Med hypotheses 72 (3).


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