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Although the organs in which they are produced are relatively small, the effects of these hormones cascade throughout the body.
Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are
- Oxytocin comes from the paraventricular nucleus in the Hypothalamus
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH - also known as vasopressin and AVP, arginine vasopressin), comes from the supraoptic nucleus in the Hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
The anterior pituitary hormones, and the hypothalamic hormones that modulate their release are listed below, along with the associated cell types.
|Anterior pituitary hormone||Hypothalamic hormone||Staining type||Cell type|
|growth hormone||release caused by GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone)||acidophil||somatotrope|
|prolactin||release INHIBITED by DA (dopamine, "prolactin inhibiting factor"/PIF)||acidophil||lactotroph (or mammotroph)|
|follicle-stimulating hormone||release caused by GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)||basophil||gonadotrope|
|luteinizing hormone||release caused by GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)||basophil||gonadotrope|
|thyroid-stimulating hormone||release caused by TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone)||basophil||thyrotrope|
|adrenocorticotropic hormone||release caused by CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone)||chromatophobe||corticotrope|
The hypothalamic hormones travel to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system.
There is also an interaction between the hormones from the hypothalamus, i.e. TRH induces the release of prolactin.
The control of hormones from the pituitary is in a negative feedback loop. Their release is inhibited by increasing levels of hormones from the target gland on which they act.
It is possible for the function of these hormones to be altered by physical activity.
- Gonadotropic hormones]
- Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
- Hypothalamo hypophyseal system
- Melanocyte stimulating hormone
- Pituitary disorders
- ↑ Bobbert T, Brechtel L, Mai K, et al. (November 2005). Adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary hormones during intensive endurance training. Clinical endocrinology 63 (5): 530–6.
|Hormones and endocrine glands - edit|
Hypothalamus: - TRH - CRH - GnRH - GHRH - somatostatin - dopamine | Posterior pituitary: vasopressin - oxytocin - lipotropin | Anterior pituitary: GH - ACTH - TSH - LH - FSH - prolactin - MSH - endorphins - lipotropin
Thyroid: T3 and T4 - calcitonin | Parathyroid: PTH | Adrenal medulla: epinephrine - norepinephrine | Adrenal cortex: aldosterone - cortisol - DHEA | Pancreas: glucagon- insulin - somatostatin | Ovary: estradiol - progesterone - inhibin - activin | Testis: testosterone - AMH - inhibin | Pineal gland: melatonin | Kidney: renin - EPO - calcitriol - prostaglandin | Heart atrium: ANP
Hypothalamic-pituitary hormones and analogues (H01)