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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2"||Piperazines|
|Molar mass||86.14 g mol-1|
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2"|| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
The piperazines are a broad class of chemical compounds, many with important pharmacological properties, which contain a core piperazine functional group.
Origin and namingEdit
Piperazines were originally named because of their chemical similarity with piperidine, a constituent of piperine in the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum). Piperidine itself is found in fireant venom and is the cause of the burning sensations from the bites of these insects.
Piperazine is freely soluble in water and ethylene glycol, but insoluble in diethyl ether. It is a weak base with a pKb of 4.19; the pH of a 10% aqueous solution is 10.8-11.8. Piperazine readily absorbs water and carbon dioxide from the air. Although many piperazine derivatives occur naturally, piperazine itself can be synthesized by reacting alcoholic ammonia with 1,2-dichloroethane; by the action of sodium and ethylene glycol on ethylene diamine hydrochloride; or by reduction of pyrazine with sodium in ethanol.
Piperazine Derivatives as DrugsEdit
Piperazine was introduced to medicine as a solvent for uric acid. When taken into the body the drug is partly oxidized and partly eliminated unchanged. Outside the body, piperazine has a remarkable power to dissolve uric acid and producing a soluble urate, but in clinical experience it has not proved equally successful. Lycetol, lysidine and sidonal are compounds having similar action. Many piperazine derivatives are notable successful drugs, including:
- Piperazine citrate (antiparasitic)
- Fluphenazine (phenothiazine antipsychotic drug)
- Perphenazine (phenothiazine antipsychotic drug)
- Prochlorperazine (phenothiazine antipsychotic drug)
- Trifluoperazine (phenothiazine antipsychotic drug)
- Flupentixol (thioxanthene antipsychotic drug)
- Thiothixene (thioxanthene antipsychotic drug)
- Zuclopenthixol (thioxanthene antipsychotic drug)
- Clozapine (antipsychotic drug)
- Olanzapine (antipsychotic drug)
- Aripiprazole (antipsychotic drug)
- Ziprasidone (antipsychotic drug
- Sildenafil (impotence drug)
- Vardenafil (impotence drug)
- Imatinib (leukemia drug)
- Meclizine (motion sickness drug)
- Cyclizine (antiemetic antihistamine)
- Niaprazine (sedating antihistamine)
- Trazodone (sedating antidepressant)
- Nefazodone (analgesic antidepressant)
- Antrafenine (analgesic)
- Befuraline (stimulant antidepressant)
- Trelibet (stimulant antidepressant)
- Fipexide (nootropic)
- Trimetazidine (anti-angina drug)
- Ranolazine (anti-angina drug)
- BZP (recreational stimulant)
- TFMPP (hallucinogen)
- mCPP (stimulant)
- MeOPP (stimulant)
- pFPP (hallucinogen)
- Hydrocathitryptozine (synthetic stimulant/hallucinogen)
As an anthelminticEdit
Piperazine was first introduced as an anthelmintic in 1953. A large number of piperazine compounds have anthelmintic action. Their mode of action is generally by paralysing parasites, which allows the host body to easily remove or expel the invading organism. This action is mediated by its agonist effects upon the inhibitory GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptor. Its selectivity for helminths is because vertebrates only use GABA in the CNS and the helminths' GABA receptor is a different isoform to the vertebrate's one. Piperazine hydrate and piperazine citrate are the main anthelminthic piperazines. These drugs are often referred to simply as "piperazine" which may cause confusion between the specific anthelmintic drugs and the entire class of piperazine-containing compounds.
- Merck Index, 11th Edition, 7431.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
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