Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Changes: Pierre Paul Broca

Edit

Back to page

(Speech research)
 
Line 1: Line 1:
  +
{{bioPsy}}
  +
 
[[Image:Paul Broca.jpg|thumb|Paul Pierre Broca]]
 
[[Image:Paul Broca.jpg|thumb|Paul Pierre Broca]]
'''Pierre Paul Broca''' (June 28, 1824 – July 9, 1880) was a [[France|French]] [[physician]], anatomist, and [[anthropologist]]. He was born in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, France.
 
   
==Education and research==
+
'''Pierre Paul Broca''' (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a [[France|French]] [[physician]], [[surgeon]], [[anatomist]], and [[anthropologist]]. He was born in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Gironde. He is best known for his research on [[Broca's area]], a region of the [[frontal lobe]] that has been named after him. Broca’s Area is responsible for articulated language. His work revealed that the brains of patients suffering from [[aphasia]] contained [[lesions]] in a particular part of the cortex, in the left frontal region. This was the first anatomical proof of the localization of brain function. Broca's work also contributed to the development of [[biological anthropology|physical anthropology]], advancing the science of [[anthropometry]].<ref name="science">{{cite journal|title=Dr. Paul Broca|journal= Science|volume= 1|issue= 8|date=August 21, 1880|pages=93|jstor=2900242|doi=10.1126/science.os-1.9.93}}</ref>
Broca was a brilliant student. He entered [[medical school]] in [[Paris]] when he was only 17 years old and graduated at 20, when most of his contemporaries were just beginning as medical students.
 
   
Broca soon became a [[professor]] of [[surgery|surgical]] [[pathology]] at the [[University of Paris]]. He quickly excelled as a noted medical researcher in many areas. At the age of 24 he had received many awards, medals, and important positions. His early [[scientific research|scientific]] works dealt with the [[histology]] of [[cartilage]] and [[bone]], but he also studied [[cancer]] pathology, the treatment of [[aneurysms]], and infant mortality. One of his major concerns was the comparative anatomy of the brain. His celebrated paper refers to many animal species. As a [[neuroanatomy|neuroanatomist]] he made important contributions to the understanding of the [[limbic system]] and [[rhinencephalon]]. Olfaction was for him a sign of animality. His research on the localization of speech led to entirely new research into the [[lateralization of brain function]]. He wrote extensively on [[Darwinism]], known as transformism in France.
+
==Personal life==
  +
Pierre Paul Broca was born on June 28, 1824, in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Bordeaux, France, the son of Benjamin Broca, a medical practitioner and former surgeon in Napoleon’s service. Broca’s mother was the daughter of a Protestant preacher. Broca received basic education in the school in his hometown, earning a bachelor's degree at the age of 16. He entered medical school in Paris when he was 17, and graduated at 20, when most of his contemporaries were just beginning as medical students.<ref name="memoir">{{cite journal|title=Memoir of Paul Broca|journal= The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland|volume=10|year=1881|pages=242–261|jstor=2841526}}</ref>
   
==Speech research==
+
After school, he did extensive internship, first with the [[urology|urologist]] and [[dermatology|dermatologist]] [[Philippe Ricord]] (1800–1889) at the Hôpital du Midi, then in 1843 with [[François Leuret]] (1797–1851) at the Bicêtre. In 1844, he succeeded to become an intern with Pierre Nicolas Gerdy (1797–1856), a great [[anatomist]] and [[surgeon]]. After two years with Gerdy, Broca became his assistant.<ref name="memoir"/>
Broca is most famous for his discovery of the [[Manner of articulation|speech]] production center of the [[brain]] located in the ventroposterior region of the [[frontal lobe]]s (now known as the [[Broca's area]]). He arrived at this discovery by studying the brains of [[aphasia|aphasic]] patients (persons with speech and language disorders resulting from brain injuries), particularly the brain of his first patient in the [[Bicêtre Hospital]], Leborgne, nicknamed "Tan" due to his inability to clearly speak any words other than "tan".
 
   
In 1861, through post-mortem autopsy, Broca determined that Tan had a [[lesion]] caused by [[syphilis]] in the left [[cerebral hemisphere]]. This lesion was determined to cover the area of the brain important for speech production. (Although history credits this discovery to Broca, it should be noted that another French neurologist, Marc Dax, made similar observations a generation earlier.) Today the brains of many of Broca's aphasic patients are still preserved in the Musée Dupuytren.
+
In 1848, Broca founded a society of free-thinkers, sympathetic to [[Charles Darwin]]'s theories. Broca was rather inspired with the whole idea of [[evolution]].{{cn|date=November 2011}} He once proclaimed, “I would rather be a transformed ape than a degenerate son of Adam”.<ref name="sagan">Sagan, Carl. 1979. Broca's Brain. Random House: New York ISBN 1439505241.</ref><ref name="memoir"/>
   
Patients with damage to [[Broca's area]] and/or to neighboring regions of the left inferior frontal lobe are often categorized clinically as having [[Broca's aphasia]]. This type of aphasia, which often involves impairments in speech output, can be contrasted with [[Wernicke's aphasia]], named for [[Karl Wernicke]], which is characterized by damage to more [[Anatomical terms of location|posterior]] regions of the left hemisphere (in the superior [[temporal lobe]]), and by greater impairments in speech comprehension. This is an example of a [[double dissociation]], an important tool used by neuropsychologists to investigate brain function.
+
This brought him in conflict with the church, which described him as a subversive, materialist, and corrupter of the youth. The church’s animosity toward him continued throughout his lifetime, resulting in numerous direct and indirect confrontations between Broca and church authorities.<ref name="memoir"/>
   
==Anthropology research==
+
In 1848, Broca became prosector of anatomy at the [[University of Paris]] Medical School, the youngest person ever appointed to the position. He also became secretary of the Société Anatomique. In 1849, he was awarded the degree of doctor of medicine. In 1859, in association with Étienne Eugène Azam, Charles-Pierre Denonvilliers, François Anthime Eugène Follin, and Alfred Armand Louis Marie Velpeau, Broca performed the first experiments in Europe using [[hypnotism]] as surgical anesthesia.<ref name="memoir"/>
Broca was also a pioneer in the study of [[physical anthropology]]. He founded the Anthropological Society in 1859, the ''Revue d'Anthropologie'' in 1872, and the School of Anthropology in [[Paris]] in 1876. Just like everyone else in his time he had no reason to think that the skulls of living people were trepanned prior to the time of the ancient Greeks. The situation changed dramatically for him and subsequently for scientists around the world in 1867, after he was shown an old Peruvian skull with cross-hatched cuts. This skull came from an Inca cemetery in the valley of Yucay and was shown to him by Ephraim George Squier, an archaeologist, writer, and diplomat. Careful examination of the Peruvian skull left no doubt in Broca's mind that "advanced surgery" had been performed in the [[New World]] before the European conquest.
 
   
Broca advanced the science of [[cranial anthropometry]] by developing many new types of measuring instruments ([[craniometry|craniometers]]) and numerical indices. The uses that reputable scientists, including [[racism|racist]] ones, made of Broca's measurements and conclusions have been analyzed by [[Stephen Jay Gould]] in ''[[The Mismeasure of Man]]'' (1981) and by his biographer, Francis Schiller. Broca's work is also featured in [[Carl Sagan]]'s book ''[[Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science|Broca's Brain]]''.
+
In 1853, Broca became professor [[agrégé]], and was appointed surgeon of the hospital. He was elected to the chair of external [[pathology]] at the faculty of medicine in 1867, and one year later professor of clinical surgery. In 1868, he became a member of the [[Académie Nationale de Médecine|Académie de medicine]], and was appointed the chair of clinical surgery. He served in this capacity until his death. He worked for the Hôpital St. Antoine, the Pitié, the Hôtel des Clinques, and the Hôpital Necker.<ref name="memoir"/>
   
==Anatomy research==
+
In parallel with his medical career, Broca pursued his interest in [[anthropology]]. In 1859, he founded the Society of Anthropology of Paris. He served as the secretary of the society from 1862. In 1872, he founded the journal Revue d'anthropologie, and in 1876, the Institute of Anthropology. The church opposed the development of anthropology in France, and in 1876 organized a campaign to stop the teaching of the subject in the Anthropological Institute.<ref name="science"/><ref name="memoir"/>
Another field in which Broca contributed significantly was the [[comparative anatomy]] of [[primate]]s. He described, for the first time, [[Trepanation|trephined skulls]] from the [[Neolithic]]. He was very interested in the relation between anatomical features of the brain and mental capabilities, such as [[intelligence (trait)|intelligence]].
 
   
==Personal life==
+
Near the end of his life, Paul Broca was elected a lifetime member of the French Senate. He was also a member of the [[Académie française]] and held honorary degrees from many other learned institutions, both in [[France]] and abroad.<ref name="memoir"/>
As a personality, Broca was a remarkable individual. His biographer, neurosurgeon Francis Schiller, records his fights with his local [[church]] which attempted to have him stricken from the electoral roll. Broca was denounced by authorities as a [[subversive]], [[materialist]], and corrupter of the youth after he founded a society of [[Freethought|freethinkers]] in [[1848]] sympathetic to [[Charles Darwin]]'s theories.
 
   
Broca was often speculated to be a homosexual by others, although proof of this was never found. His wife always argued otherwise.
+
Broca died on July 9, 1880, at the age of 56 due to a [[brain hemorrhage]].<ref name="science"/> His two sons both became distinguished professors of medical science.<ref name="memoir"/>
   
Near the end of his life, Paul Broca was elected a [[senator for life#France|lifetime member]] of the [[French Senate]]. He was also a member of the [[Académie Française]] and held [[honorary degree]]s from many other learned institutions, both in France and abroad. Broca died in Paris in 1880.
+
==Research==
  +
Broca's early [[scientific research|scientific]] works dealt with the [[histology]] of [[cartilage]] and [[bone]], but he also studied [[cancer]] pathology, the treatment of [[aneurysms]], and infant mortality. One of his major concerns was the comparative anatomy of the brain. As a [[neuroanatomy|neuroanatomist]] he made important contributions to the understanding of the [[limbic system]] and [[rhinencephalon]]. [[Olfaction]] was for him a sign of animality. He wrote extensively on [[biological evolution]], then known as ''transformism'' in France (the term was also adopted in English at the time but is today used little in either language).<ref name="memoir"/>
   
Broca's brain is now a specimen at the [[Museum of Man]] in Paris.
+
In his later career, Broca wrote on public health and public education. He engaged in the discussion on the health care for the poor, becoming an important figure in the Assistance Publique. He also advocated for women’s education and its separation from the church. He opposed famous [[Félix Dupanloup|Félix-Antoine-Philibert Dupanloup]] (1802–1878), Roman Catholic bishop of [[Orléans]], who wanted to keep control of women’s education.<ref name="memoir"/>
   
==Broca's Legacy==
+
One of Broca’s major areas of expertise was the [[comparative anatomy]] of the brain. His research on the [[functional specialization (brain)|localization]] of speech led to entirely new research into the [[lateralization of brain function]].<ref name="memoir"/>
The discovery of the Broca's area revolutionized the understanding of speech production. New research has found that dysfunction in the Broca's area may lead to other speech disorders such as [[stuttering]] and [[apraxia|apraxia of speech]]. Recent anatomical [[neuroimaging]] studies have shown that the [[pars opercularis]] of the Broca's area is anatomically smaller in individuals who stutter whereas the [[pars triangularis]] appears to be normal.
+
  +
===Speech research===
  +
[[File:Paul Broca 2.jpg|thumb|Paul Broca]]
  +
Broca is most famous for his discovery of the [[Manner of articulation|speech]] production center of the [[brain]] located in the ventroposterior region of the [[frontal lobe]]s (now known as Broca's area). He arrived at this discovery by studying the brains of [[aphasia|aphasic]] patients (persons with speech and language disorders resulting from brain injuries).<ref name="Fancher">Fancher, Raymond E. Pioneers of Psychology , 2nd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1990 (1979), pp. 72–93.</ref>
  +
  +
This area of study began for Broca from an intellectual attack and the ensuing challenges thereafter. Initially, [[Franz Joseph Gall]] (1758–1828) claimed his very popular theory of [[Phrenology]] and localization of function in the brain, but it was attacked by [[Pierre Flourens]] (1794–1867) who claimed that, by careful [[ablation]] of various brain regions, he had disproved Gall's hypotheses. However, Gall's former student, [[Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud]] (1796–1881), kept the localization of function hypothesis alive (especially with regards to a "language center"), but ended up rejecting most of the Phrenology hypothesis. Bouillaud challenged professionals of the time to disprove him by finding a case of frontal lobe damage unaccompanied by a disorder of speech. His son-in-law, Ernest Aubertin (1825–1893), began seeking out patients to either prove or disprove the theory, of which he found several in support of it.<ref name="Fancher"/>
  +
  +
Broca's Society of Anthropology of Paris became the new platform for the localization of function controversy when several experts of head and brain anatomy joined, including Aubertin. Most of these experts still supported Flourens argument, but Aubertin was persistent in presenting new patients to counter their views. However, it was Broca, not Aubertin, who finally put the localization of function existence issue to rest.<ref name="Fancher"/>
  +
  +
In 1861, Broca heard of a patient, named Leborgne, in the Bicêtre Hospital who had a 21-year progressive loss of speech and paralysis but not a loss of comprehension nor mental function. He was nicknamed "Tan" due to his inability to clearly speak any words other than "tan". <ref name="Fancher"/><ref name="Tan">Broca, Paul. [http://psychclassics.asu.edu/Broca/aphemie-e.htm “Remarks on the Seat of the Faculty of Articulated Language, Following an Observation of Aphemia (Loss of Speech)”]. Bulletin de la Société Anatomique, Vol. 6, (1861), 330–357.</ref>
  +
  +
When Leborgne died just a few days later, Broca performed an autopsy. He determined that, as predicted, Leborgne did in fact have a [[lesion]] in the [[frontal lobe]] of the left [[cerebral hemisphere]]. From a comparative progression of Leborgne's loss of speech and motor movement, the area of the brain important for speech production was determined to lie within the third convolution of the left frontal lobe, next to the [[lateral sulcus]]. For the next two years, Broca went on to find autopsy evidence from 12 more cases in support of the localization of articulated language.<ref name="Fancher"/><ref name="Tan"/>
  +
  +
Although history credits this discovery to Broca, another French neurologist, [[Marc Dax]], made similar observations a generation earlier, but he died shortly after with no chance to further his evidence.{{cn|date=November 2011}} Today the brains of many of Broca's aphasic patients are still preserved in the [[Musée Dupuytren]], and his collection of casts in the [[Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière]]. Broca presented his study on Leborgne in 1861 in the Bulletin of the Société Anatomique.<ref name="Fancher"/><ref name="Tan"/>
  +
  +
Patients with damage to [[Broca's area]] and/or to neighboring regions of the left [[Anatomical terms of location|inferior]] frontal lobe are often categorized clinically as having [[Expressive aphasia]] (also known as '''Broca's aphasia'''). This type of aphasia, which often involves impairments in speech output, can be contrasted with [[Receptive aphasia]], (also known as '''Wernicke's aphasia'''), named for [[Karl Wernicke]], which is characterized by damage to more [[Anatomical terms of location|posterior]] regions of the left [[temporal lobe]], and is often characterized by impairments in language comprehension.<ref name="Fancher"/><ref name="Tan"/>
  +
  +
===Anthropological research===
  +
Broca first become acquainted with anthropology through the works of Isidore Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire (1805–1861), Antoine Étienne Reynaud Augustin Serres (1786–1868) and [[Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau]] (1810–1892), and anthropology soon became his lifetime interest. He spent much time at his Anthropological Institute, studying skulls and bones. In that sense, Broca was a pioneer in the study of physical anthropology. He advanced the science of cranial anthropometry by developing many new types of measuring instruments ([[anthropometry|craniometers]]) and numerical indices.<ref name="memoir"/>
  +
  +
Broca also contributed significantly to the field of [[comparative anatomy]] of primates. He was interested in the relationship between anatomical features of the brain and mental capabilities, such as intelligence. He believed, as did many in his time, that man's intellectual qualities could be measured by the size of his brain.{{cn|date=November 2011}}
  +
  +
Broca published around 223 papers on general anthropology, physical anthropology, ethnology, and other branches of this field. He founded the ''[[Société d'Anthropologie de Paris]]'' in 1859, the ''Revue d'Anthropologie'' in 1872, and the School of Anthropology in Paris in 1876.{{cn|date=November 2011}}
  +
  +
==Broca's legacy==
  +
The discovery of Broca's area revolutionized the understanding of language processing, speech production, and comprehension, as well as what effects damage to this area may cause. Broca played a major role in the localization of function debate, by resolving the issue scientifically with Leborgne and his 12 cases thereafter. His research led others to discover the location of a wide variety of other functions, specifically [[Wernicke's area]].{{cn|date=November 2011}}
  +
  +
New research has found that dysfunction in the area may lead to other speech disorders such as [[stuttering]] and [[apraxia|apraxia of speech]]. Recent anatomical [[neuroimaging]] studies have shown that the [[pars opercularis]] of Broca's area is anatomically smaller in individuals who stutter whereas the [[pars triangularis]] appears to be normal.{{cn|date=November 2011}}
  +
  +
He also invented more than 20 measuring instruments for the use in craniology, and helped standardize measuring procedures.<ref name="memoir"/>
  +
  +
==Publications==
  +
* Broca, Paul. 1849. De la propagation de l’inflammation – Quelques propositions sur les tumeurs dites cancéreuses. Doctoral dissertation.
  +
* Broca, Paul. 1856. Traité des anévrismes et leur traitement. Paris: Labé & Asselin
  +
* Broca, Paul. 1861. Sur le principe des localisations cérébrales. Bulletin de la Société d"Anthropologie 2: 190–204.
  +
* Broca, Paul. 1861. Perte de la parole, ramollissement chronique et destruction partielle du lobe antérieur gauche. Bulletin de la Société d"Anthropologie 2: 235–38.
  +
* Broca, Paul. 1861. Nouvelle observation d'aphémie produite par une lésion de la moitié postérieure des deuxième et troisième circonvolution frontales gauches. Bulletin de la Société Anatomique 36: 398–407.
  +
* Broca, Paul. 1863. Localisations des fonctions cérébrales. Siège de la faculté du langage articulé. Bulletin de la Société d"Anthropologie 4: 200–208.
  +
* Broca, Paul. 1866. Sur la faculté générale du langage, dans ses rapports avec la faculté du langage articulé. Bulletin de la Société d"Anthropologie deuxième série 1: 377–82.
  +
* Broca, Paul. 1871–1878. Mémoires d'anthropologie, 3 vols. Paris: C. Reinwald,
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
  +
{{reflist}}
  +
  +
==Literature==
 
{{Wikisource1911Enc|Broca, Paul}}
 
{{Wikisource1911Enc|Broca, Paul}}
* [[Renato M.E. Sabbatini]]: [http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n02/historia/psicocirg_i.htm The History of Psychosurgery]. [http://www.cerebromente.org.br/ Brain & Mind], September 1997.
+
{{Wikisource|Author:{{PAGENAME}}}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Androutsos G, Diamantis A |title=Paul Broca (1824–1880): founder of anthropology, pioneer of neurology and oncology |journal=Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology |volume=12 |issue=4 |pages=557–64 |year=2007 |pmid=18067221}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Buckingham HW |title=The Marc Dax (1770–1837)/Paul Broca (1824–1880) controversy over priority in science: left hemisphere specificity for seat of articulate language and for lesions that cause aphemia |journal=Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics |volume=20 |issue=7–8 |pages=613–9 |year=2006 |pmid=17056493 |doi=10.1080/02699200500266703}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Monod-Broca P |trans_title=The other Paul Broca |language=French |journal=La Revue du praticien |volume=56 |issue=8 |pages=923–5 |year=2006 |month=April |pmid=16764255 |title=The other Paul Broca}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Finger S |title=Paul Broca (1824–1880) |journal=Journal of Neurology |volume=251 |issue=6 |pages=769–70 |year=2004 |month=June |pmid=15311362 |doi=10.1007/s00415-004-0456-6}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Wyplosz J |trans_title=Paul Broca: the protohistory of neurosurgery |language=French |journal=La Revue du praticien |volume=53 |issue=9 |pages=937–40 |year=2003 |month=May |pmid=12816030 |title=Paul Broca: the protohistory of neurosurgery}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Jay V |title=Pierre Paul Broca |journal=Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine |volume=126 |issue=3 |pages=250–1 |year=2002 |month=March |pmid=11860295 |url=http://journals.allenpress.com/jrnlserv/?request=get-abstract&issn=0003-9985&volume=126&page=250 |doi=10.1043/0003-9985(2002)126<0250:PPB>2.0.CO;2 |issn=0003-9985}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Clower WT, Finger S |title=Discovering trepanation: the contribution of Paul Broca |journal=Neurosurgery |volume=49 |issue=6 |pages=1417–25; discussion 1425–6 |year=2001 |month=December |pmid=11846942 |doi=10.1097/00006123-200112000-00021}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Monod-Broca P |title=Paul Broca: 1824–1880 |language=French |journal=Annales de Chirurgie |volume=126 |issue=8 |pages=801–7 |year=2001 |month=October |pmid=11692769 |doi=10.1016/S0003-3944(01)00600-9}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Cowie SE |title=A place in history: Paul Broca and cerebral localization |journal=Journal of Investigative Surgery |volume=13 |issue=6 |pages=297–8 |year=2000 |pmid=11202005 |doi=10.1080/089419300750059334}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Frédy D |trans_title=Paul Broca (1824–1880) |language=French |journal=Histoire Des Sciences Médicales |volume=30 |issue=2 |pages=199–208 |year=1996 |pmid=11624874 |title=Paul Broca (1824–1880)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Olry R, Nicolay X |trans_title=From Paul Broca to the long-term potentiation: the difficulties in confirming a limbic identity |language=French |journal=Histoire Des Sciences Médicales |volume=28 |issue=3 |pages=199–203 |year=1994 |pmid=11640329 |title=From Paul Broca to the long-term potentiation: the difficulties in confirming a limbic identity}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Stone JL |title=Paul Broca and the first craniotomy based on cerebral localization |journal=Journal of Neurosurgery |volume=75 |issue=1 |pages=154–9 |year=1991 |month=July |pmid=2045905 |doi=10.3171/jns.1991.75.1.0154}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Harris LJ |title=Cerebral control for speech in right-handers and left-handers: an analysis of the views of Paul Broca, his contemporaries, and his successors |journal=Brain and Language |volume=40 |issue=1 |pages=1–50 |year=1991 |month=January |pmid=2009444 |doi=10.1016/0093-934X(91)90115-H}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Bendiner E |title=Paul Broca: adventurer in the recesses of the mind |journal=Hospital Practice |volume=21 |issue=11A |pages=104–12, 117, 120–1 passim |year=1986 |month=November |pmid=3097033}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Schiller F |title=Paul Broca and the history of aphasia |journal=Neurology |volume=33 |issue=5 |pages=667 |year=1983 |month=May |pmid=6341875}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Huard P, Aaron C, Askienazy S, Corlieu P, Fredy D, Vedrenne C |trans_title=The brain of Paul Broca (1824–1880). Correlation of pathological and computed tomography findings |language=French |journal=Journal De Radiologie |volume=63 |issue=3 |pages=175–80 |year=1982 |month=March |pmid=7050373 |title=The brain of Paul Broca (1824–1880). Correlation of pathological and computed tomography findings (author's transl)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Lee DA |title=Paul Broca and the history of aphasia: Roland P. Mackay Award Essay, 1980 |journal=Neurology |volume=31 |issue=5 |pages=600–2 |year=1981 |month=May |pmid=7015163}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Huard P, Aaron C, Askienazy S, Corlieu P, Fredy D, Vedrenne C |trans_title=The death of Paul Broca (1824–1880) |language=French |journal=Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine |volume=164 |issue=7 |pages=682–5 |year=1980 |month=October |pmid=7013939 |title=The death of Paul Broca (1824–1880)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Lukács D |trans_title=Pierre Paul Broca, founder of anthropology and discoverer of the cortical speech center |language=Hungarian |journal=Orvosi Hetilap |volume=121 |issue=34 |pages=2081–2 |year=1980 |month=August |pmid=7005822 |title=Pierre Paul Broca, founder of anthropology and discoverer of the cortical speech center}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Cambier J |trans_title=Paul Broca, 100 years after his death, 1880–1980 |language=French |journal=La Nouvelle Presse Médicale |volume=9 |issue=29 |pages=1983 |year=1980 |month=July |pmid=6995932 |title=Paul Broca, 100 years after his death, 1880–1980}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Dechaume M, Huard P |trans_title=Paul Broca (182401880). Dentist or dentistry in the last century |language=French |journal=Actualités Odonto-stomatologiques |volume=34 |issue=132 |pages=537–43 |year=1980 |pmid=7015804 |title=Paul Broca (182401880). Dentist or dentistry in the last century}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=D'Aubigné RM |trans_title=Paul Broca and surgery of the motor system |language=French |journal=Chirurgie |volume=106 |issue=10 |pages=791–3 |year=1980 |pmid=7011706 |title=Paul Broca and surgery of the motor system}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Denoix P |trans_title=Paul Broca : pathological anatomy, cancer, statistics |language=French |journal=Chirurgie |volume=106 |issue=10 |pages=787–90 |year=1980 |pmid=7011705 |title=Paul Broca : pathological anatomy, cancer, statistics (author's transl)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Houdart R |trans_title=Paul Broca : precursor of neurological disciplines |language=French |journal=Chirurgie |volume=106 |issue=10 |pages=783–6 |year=1980 |pmid=7011704 |title=Paul Broca : precursor of neurological disciplines (author's transl)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Natali J |trans_title=Paul Broca, vascular surgeon |language=French |journal=Chirurgie |volume=106 |issue=10 |pages=777–82 |year=1980 |pmid=7011703 |title=Paul Broca, vascular surgeon (author's transl)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Huard P |trans_title=Paul Broca, anatomist |language=French |journal=Chirurgie |volume=106 |issue=10 |pages=774–6 |year=1980 |pmid=7011702 |title=Paul Broca, anatomist (author's transl)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author= |trans_title=Commemoration of the centenary of the death of Paul Broca |language=French |journal=Chirurgie |volume=106 |issue=10 |pages=773–93 |year=1980 |pmid=7011701 |title= Commemoration of the centenary of the death of Paul Broca}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Castaigne P |trans_title=Paul Broca (1824–1880) |language=French |journal=[[Revue neurologique]] |volume=136 |issue=10 |pages=559–62 |year=1980 |pmid=7010498 |title=Paul Broca (1824–1880)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Pineau H |trans_title=Paul Broca and anthropology |language=French |journal=Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine |volume=164 |issue=6 |pages=557–62 |year=1980 |pmid=7008917 |title=Paul Broca and anthropology}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Delmas A |trans_title=Paul Broca and anatomy |language=French |journal=Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine |volume=164 |issue=6 |pages=552–6 |year=1980 |pmid=7008916 |title=Paul Broca and anatomy}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Alajouanine T, Signoret JL |trans_title=Paul Broca and aphasia |language=French |journal=Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine |volume=164 |issue=6 |pages=545–51 |year=1980 |pmid=7008915 |title=Paul Broca and aphasia}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Monod-Broca P |trans_title=Paul Broca (1824–1880). The surgeon, the man |language=French |journal=Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine |volume=164 |issue=6 |pages=536–44 |year=1980 |pmid=7008914 |title=Paul Broca (1824–1880). The surgeon, the man}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Valette G |trans_title=Address at the meeting dedicated to the centenary of the death of Paul Broca (1824–1880) |language=French |journal=Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine |volume=164 |issue=6 |pages=535 |year=1980 |pmid=7008913 |title=Address at the meeting dedicated to the centenary of the death of Paul Broca (1824–1880)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Leischner A |trans_title=Paul Broca and significance of his works for clinical pathology of the brain |language=Slovak |journal=Bratislavské Lekárske Listy |volume=57 |issue=5 |pages=615–23 |year=1972 |month=May |pmid=4554955 |title=Paul Broca and significance of his works for clinical pathology of the brain}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Greenblatt SH |title=Huglings Jackson's first encounter with the work of Paul Broca: the physiological and philosophical background |journal=Bulletin of the History of Medicine |volume=44 |issue=6 |pages=555–70 |year=1970 |pmid=4925020}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Huard P |trans_title=Paul BROCA (1829–1880) |language=French |journal=Concours Médical |volume=83 |issue= |pages=5069–74 concl |year=1961 |month=October |pmid=14036413 |title=Paul BROCA (1829–1880)}}
  +
*{{cite journal |author=Huard P |trans_title=Paul BROCA (1824–1880) |language=French |journal=Concours Médical |volume=83 |issue= |pages=4917–20 |year=1961 |month=October |pmid=14036412 |title=Paul BROCA (1824–1880)}}
   
==See also==
 
* [[Broca's area]] of the brain
 
 
==External links==
 
* [http://vlp.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/people/data?id=per335 Biography and bibliography] in the Virtual Laboratory of the [[Max Planck Institute for the History of Science]]
 
   
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Broca, Paul Pierre}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Broca, Paul Pierre}}
  +
[[Category:1824 births]]
  +
[[Category:1880 deaths]]
  +
[[Category:French scientists]]
  +
[[Category:French neuroscientists]]
  +
[[Category:History of neuroscience]]
  +
[[Category:French anthropologists]]
  +
[[Category:French anatomists]]
  +
  +
  +
<!-[
  +
[[bg:Пол Брока]]
  +
[[ca:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[de:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[es:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[eo:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[fa:پل بروکا]]
  +
[[fr:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[ko:폴 브로카]]
  +
[[id:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[it:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[he:פול ברוקה]]
  +
[[la:Paulus Broca]]
  +
[[nl:Paul Pierre Broca]]
  +
[[no:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[pl:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[pt:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[ro:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[ru:Брока, Поль]]
  +
[[sv:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[tr:Paul Broca]]
  +
[[uk:Поль Брока]]
  +
-->
  +
{{enWP|Paul Broca}}

Latest revision as of 09:55, August 8, 2012

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


Paul Broca
Paul Pierre Broca
AWeidmanAdded by AWeidman

Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, surgeon, anatomist, and anthropologist. He was born in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Gironde. He is best known for his research on Broca's area, a region of the frontal lobe that has been named after him. Broca’s Area is responsible for articulated language. His work revealed that the brains of patients suffering from aphasia contained lesions in a particular part of the cortex, in the left frontal region. This was the first anatomical proof of the localization of brain function. Broca's work also contributed to the development of physical anthropology, advancing the science of anthropometry.[1]

Personal lifeEdit

Pierre Paul Broca was born on June 28, 1824, in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Bordeaux, France, the son of Benjamin Broca, a medical practitioner and former surgeon in Napoleon’s service. Broca’s mother was the daughter of a Protestant preacher. Broca received basic education in the school in his hometown, earning a bachelor's degree at the age of 16. He entered medical school in Paris when he was 17, and graduated at 20, when most of his contemporaries were just beginning as medical students.[2]

After school, he did extensive internship, first with the urologist and dermatologist Philippe Ricord (1800–1889) at the Hôpital du Midi, then in 1843 with François Leuret (1797–1851) at the Bicêtre. In 1844, he succeeded to become an intern with Pierre Nicolas Gerdy (1797–1856), a great anatomist and surgeon. After two years with Gerdy, Broca became his assistant.[2]

In 1848, Broca founded a society of free-thinkers, sympathetic to Charles Darwin's theories. Broca was rather inspired with the whole idea of evolution.[citation needed] He once proclaimed, “I would rather be a transformed ape than a degenerate son of Adam”.[3][2]

This brought him in conflict with the church, which described him as a subversive, materialist, and corrupter of the youth. The church’s animosity toward him continued throughout his lifetime, resulting in numerous direct and indirect confrontations between Broca and church authorities.[2]

In 1848, Broca became prosector of anatomy at the University of Paris Medical School, the youngest person ever appointed to the position. He also became secretary of the Société Anatomique. In 1849, he was awarded the degree of doctor of medicine. In 1859, in association with Étienne Eugène Azam, Charles-Pierre Denonvilliers, François Anthime Eugène Follin, and Alfred Armand Louis Marie Velpeau, Broca performed the first experiments in Europe using hypnotism as surgical anesthesia.[2]

In 1853, Broca became professor agrégé, and was appointed surgeon of the hospital. He was elected to the chair of external pathology at the faculty of medicine in 1867, and one year later professor of clinical surgery. In 1868, he became a member of the Académie de medicine, and was appointed the chair of clinical surgery. He served in this capacity until his death. He worked for the Hôpital St. Antoine, the Pitié, the Hôtel des Clinques, and the Hôpital Necker.[2]

In parallel with his medical career, Broca pursued his interest in anthropology. In 1859, he founded the Society of Anthropology of Paris. He served as the secretary of the society from 1862. In 1872, he founded the journal Revue d'anthropologie, and in 1876, the Institute of Anthropology. The church opposed the development of anthropology in France, and in 1876 organized a campaign to stop the teaching of the subject in the Anthropological Institute.[1][2]

Near the end of his life, Paul Broca was elected a lifetime member of the French Senate. He was also a member of the Académie française and held honorary degrees from many other learned institutions, both in France and abroad.[2]

Broca died on July 9, 1880, at the age of 56 due to a brain hemorrhage.[1] His two sons both became distinguished professors of medical science.[2]

ResearchEdit

Broca's early scientific works dealt with the histology of cartilage and bone, but he also studied cancer pathology, the treatment of aneurysms, and infant mortality. One of his major concerns was the comparative anatomy of the brain. As a neuroanatomist he made important contributions to the understanding of the limbic system and rhinencephalon. Olfaction was for him a sign of animality. He wrote extensively on biological evolution, then known as transformism in France (the term was also adopted in English at the time but is today used little in either language).[2]

In his later career, Broca wrote on public health and public education. He engaged in the discussion on the health care for the poor, becoming an important figure in the Assistance Publique. He also advocated for women’s education and its separation from the church. He opposed famous Félix-Antoine-Philibert Dupanloup (1802–1878), Roman Catholic bishop of Orléans, who wanted to keep control of women’s education.[2]

One of Broca’s major areas of expertise was the comparative anatomy of the brain. His research on the localization of speech led to entirely new research into the lateralization of brain function.[2]

Speech researchEdit

File:Paul Broca 2.jpg
Paul Broca

Broca is most famous for his discovery of the speech production center of the brain located in the ventroposterior region of the frontal lobes (now known as Broca's area). He arrived at this discovery by studying the brains of aphasic patients (persons with speech and language disorders resulting from brain injuries).[4]

This area of study began for Broca from an intellectual attack and the ensuing challenges thereafter. Initially, Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828) claimed his very popular theory of Phrenology and localization of function in the brain, but it was attacked by Pierre Flourens (1794–1867) who claimed that, by careful ablation of various brain regions, he had disproved Gall's hypotheses. However, Gall's former student, Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud (1796–1881), kept the localization of function hypothesis alive (especially with regards to a "language center"), but ended up rejecting most of the Phrenology hypothesis. Bouillaud challenged professionals of the time to disprove him by finding a case of frontal lobe damage unaccompanied by a disorder of speech. His son-in-law, Ernest Aubertin (1825–1893), began seeking out patients to either prove or disprove the theory, of which he found several in support of it.[4]

Broca's Society of Anthropology of Paris became the new platform for the localization of function controversy when several experts of head and brain anatomy joined, including Aubertin. Most of these experts still supported Flourens argument, but Aubertin was persistent in presenting new patients to counter their views. However, it was Broca, not Aubertin, who finally put the localization of function existence issue to rest.[4]

In 1861, Broca heard of a patient, named Leborgne, in the Bicêtre Hospital who had a 21-year progressive loss of speech and paralysis but not a loss of comprehension nor mental function. He was nicknamed "Tan" due to his inability to clearly speak any words other than "tan". [4][5]

When Leborgne died just a few days later, Broca performed an autopsy. He determined that, as predicted, Leborgne did in fact have a lesion in the frontal lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere. From a comparative progression of Leborgne's loss of speech and motor movement, the area of the brain important for speech production was determined to lie within the third convolution of the left frontal lobe, next to the lateral sulcus. For the next two years, Broca went on to find autopsy evidence from 12 more cases in support of the localization of articulated language.[4][5]

Although history credits this discovery to Broca, another French neurologist, Marc Dax, made similar observations a generation earlier, but he died shortly after with no chance to further his evidence.[citation needed] Today the brains of many of Broca's aphasic patients are still preserved in the Musée Dupuytren, and his collection of casts in the Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière. Broca presented his study on Leborgne in 1861 in the Bulletin of the Société Anatomique.[4][5]

Patients with damage to Broca's area and/or to neighboring regions of the left inferior frontal lobe are often categorized clinically as having Expressive aphasia (also known as Broca's aphasia). This type of aphasia, which often involves impairments in speech output, can be contrasted with Receptive aphasia, (also known as Wernicke's aphasia), named for Karl Wernicke, which is characterized by damage to more posterior regions of the left temporal lobe, and is often characterized by impairments in language comprehension.[4][5]

Anthropological researchEdit

Broca first become acquainted with anthropology through the works of Isidore Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire (1805–1861), Antoine Étienne Reynaud Augustin Serres (1786–1868) and Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau (1810–1892), and anthropology soon became his lifetime interest. He spent much time at his Anthropological Institute, studying skulls and bones. In that sense, Broca was a pioneer in the study of physical anthropology. He advanced the science of cranial anthropometry by developing many new types of measuring instruments (craniometers) and numerical indices.[2]

Broca also contributed significantly to the field of comparative anatomy of primates. He was interested in the relationship between anatomical features of the brain and mental capabilities, such as intelligence. He believed, as did many in his time, that man's intellectual qualities could be measured by the size of his brain.[citation needed]

Broca published around 223 papers on general anthropology, physical anthropology, ethnology, and other branches of this field. He founded the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris in 1859, the Revue d'Anthropologie in 1872, and the School of Anthropology in Paris in 1876.[citation needed]

Broca's legacyEdit

The discovery of Broca's area revolutionized the understanding of language processing, speech production, and comprehension, as well as what effects damage to this area may cause. Broca played a major role in the localization of function debate, by resolving the issue scientifically with Leborgne and his 12 cases thereafter. His research led others to discover the location of a wide variety of other functions, specifically Wernicke's area.[citation needed]

New research has found that dysfunction in the area may lead to other speech disorders such as stuttering and apraxia of speech. Recent anatomical neuroimaging studies have shown that the pars opercularis of Broca's area is anatomically smaller in individuals who stutter whereas the pars triangularis appears to be normal.[citation needed]

He also invented more than 20 measuring instruments for the use in craniology, and helped standardize measuring procedures.[2]

PublicationsEdit

  • Broca, Paul. 1849. De la propagation de l’inflammation – Quelques propositions sur les tumeurs dites cancéreuses. Doctoral dissertation.
  • Broca, Paul. 1856. Traité des anévrismes et leur traitement. Paris: Labé & Asselin
  • Broca, Paul. 1861. Sur le principe des localisations cérébrales. Bulletin de la Société d"Anthropologie 2: 190–204.
  • Broca, Paul. 1861. Perte de la parole, ramollissement chronique et destruction partielle du lobe antérieur gauche. Bulletin de la Société d"Anthropologie 2: 235–38.
  • Broca, Paul. 1861. Nouvelle observation d'aphémie produite par une lésion de la moitié postérieure des deuxième et troisième circonvolution frontales gauches. Bulletin de la Société Anatomique 36: 398–407.
  • Broca, Paul. 1863. Localisations des fonctions cérébrales. Siège de la faculté du langage articulé. Bulletin de la Société d"Anthropologie 4: 200–208.
  • Broca, Paul. 1866. Sur la faculté générale du langage, dans ses rapports avec la faculté du langage articulé. Bulletin de la Société d"Anthropologie deuxième série 1: 377–82.
  • Broca, Paul. 1871–1878. Mémoires d'anthropologie, 3 vols. Paris: C. Reinwald,

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 (August 21, 1880) Dr. Paul Broca. Science 1 (8): 93.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 (1881). Memoir of Paul Broca. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 10: 242–261.
  3. Sagan, Carl. 1979. Broca's Brain. Random House: New York ISBN 1439505241.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Fancher, Raymond E. Pioneers of Psychology , 2nd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1990 (1979), pp. 72–93.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Broca, Paul. “Remarks on the Seat of the Faculty of Articulated Language, Following an Observation of Aphemia (Loss of Speech)”. Bulletin de la Société Anatomique, Vol. 6, (1861), 330–357.

LiteratureEdit

Wikisource-logo
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  • Androutsos G, Diamantis A (2007). Paul Broca (1824–1880): founder of anthropology, pioneer of neurology and oncology. Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology 12 (4): 557–64.
  • Buckingham HW (2006). The Marc Dax (1770–1837)/Paul Broca (1824–1880) controversy over priority in science: left hemisphere specificity for seat of articulate language and for lesions that cause aphemia. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 20 (7–8): 613–9.
  • Monod-Broca P (April 2006). The other Paul Broca. La Revue du praticien 56 (8): 923–5.
  • Finger S (June 2004). Paul Broca (1824–1880). Journal of Neurology 251 (6): 769–70.
  • Wyplosz J (May 2003). Paul Broca: the protohistory of neurosurgery. La Revue du praticien 53 (9): 937–40.
  • Jay V (March 2002). Pierre Paul Broca. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine 126 (3): 250–1.
  • Clower WT, Finger S (December 2001). Discovering trepanation: the contribution of Paul Broca. Neurosurgery 49 (6): 1417–25; discussion 1425–6.
  • Monod-Broca P (October 2001). Paul Broca: 1824–1880. Annales de Chirurgie 126 (8): 801–7.
  • Cowie SE (2000). A place in history: Paul Broca and cerebral localization. Journal of Investigative Surgery 13 (6): 297–8.
  • Frédy D (1996). Paul Broca (1824–1880). Histoire Des Sciences Médicales 30 (2): 199–208.
  • Olry R, Nicolay X (1994). From Paul Broca to the long-term potentiation: the difficulties in confirming a limbic identity. Histoire Des Sciences Médicales 28 (3): 199–203.
  • Stone JL (July 1991). Paul Broca and the first craniotomy based on cerebral localization. Journal of Neurosurgery 75 (1): 154–9.
  • Harris LJ (January 1991). Cerebral control for speech in right-handers and left-handers: an analysis of the views of Paul Broca, his contemporaries, and his successors. Brain and Language 40 (1): 1–50.
  • Bendiner E (November 1986). Paul Broca: adventurer in the recesses of the mind. Hospital Practice 21 (11A): 104–12, 117, 120–1 passim.
  • Schiller F (May 1983). Paul Broca and the history of aphasia. Neurology 33 (5): 667.
  • Huard P, Aaron C, Askienazy S, Corlieu P, Fredy D, Vedrenne C (March 1982). The brain of Paul Broca (1824–1880). Correlation of pathological and computed tomography findings (author's transl). Journal De Radiologie 63 (3): 175–80.
  • Lee DA (May 1981). Paul Broca and the history of aphasia: Roland P. Mackay Award Essay, 1980. Neurology 31 (5): 600–2.
  • Huard P, Aaron C, Askienazy S, Corlieu P, Fredy D, Vedrenne C (October 1980). The death of Paul Broca (1824–1880). Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine 164 (7): 682–5.
  • Lukács D (August 1980). Pierre Paul Broca, founder of anthropology and discoverer of the cortical speech center. Orvosi Hetilap 121 (34): 2081–2.
  • Cambier J (July 1980). Paul Broca, 100 years after his death, 1880–1980. La Nouvelle Presse Médicale 9 (29): 1983.
  • Dechaume M, Huard P (1980). Paul Broca (182401880). Dentist or dentistry in the last century. Actualités Odonto-stomatologiques 34 (132): 537–43.
  • D'Aubigné RM (1980). Paul Broca and surgery of the motor system. Chirurgie 106 (10): 791–3.
  • Denoix P (1980). Paul Broca : pathological anatomy, cancer, statistics (author's transl). Chirurgie 106 (10): 787–90.
  • Houdart R (1980). Paul Broca : precursor of neurological disciplines (author's transl). Chirurgie 106 (10): 783–6.
  • Natali J (1980). Paul Broca, vascular surgeon (author's transl). Chirurgie 106 (10): 777–82.
  • Huard P (1980). Paul Broca, anatomist (author's transl). Chirurgie 106 (10): 774–6.
  • (1980) Commemoration of the centenary of the death of Paul Broca. Chirurgie 106 (10): 773–93.
  • Castaigne P (1980). Paul Broca (1824–1880). Revue neurologique 136 (10): 559–62.
  • Pineau H (1980). Paul Broca and anthropology. Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine 164 (6): 557–62.
  • Delmas A (1980). Paul Broca and anatomy. Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine 164 (6): 552–6.
  • Alajouanine T, Signoret JL (1980). Paul Broca and aphasia. Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine 164 (6): 545–51.
  • Monod-Broca P (1980). Paul Broca (1824–1880). The surgeon, the man. Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine 164 (6): 536–44.
  • Valette G (1980). Address at the meeting dedicated to the centenary of the death of Paul Broca (1824–1880). Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine 164 (6): 535.
  • Leischner A (May 1972). Paul Broca and significance of his works for clinical pathology of the brain. Bratislavské Lekárske Listy 57 (5): 615–23.
  • Greenblatt SH (1970). Huglings Jackson's first encounter with the work of Paul Broca: the physiological and philosophical background. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 44 (6): 555–70.
  • Huard P (October 1961). Paul BROCA (1829–1880). Concours Médical 83: 5069–74 concl.
  • Huard P (October 1961). Paul BROCA (1824–1880). Concours Médical 83: 4917–20.


<!-[ bg:Пол Брока ca:Paul Broca de:Paul Broca es:Paul Broca eo:Paul Broca fa:پل بروکا fr:Paul Broca ko:폴 브로카 id:Paul Brocahe:פול ברוקה la:Paulus Broca nl:Paul Pierre Broca no:Paul Brocapt:Paul Broca ro:Paul Broca ru:Брока, Поль sv:Paul Brocauk:Поль Брока -->

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki