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According to dual-coding theory by Allan Paivio (1971, 1986), memory exists either (or both) verbally or "imaginally". Concrete concepts presented as pictures are encoded into both systems; however, abstract concepts are recorded only verbally.
- Nelson, D. L., Reed, U. S., & Walling, J. R. (1976). Picture superiority effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 2, 523-528.
- Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
- Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual-coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.