Pica is an appetite for non-foods (e.g., coal, soil, chalk, etc.) or an abnormal appetite for some things that may be considered foods, such as food ingredients (e.g., flour, raw potato, starch). In order for these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month, at an age where eating dirt, clay, etc., is considered developmentally inappropriate.
The condition's name comes from the Latin word for the magpie, a bird which is reputed to eat almost anything. Pica is seen in all ages, particularly in pregnant women and small children, especially among children who are developmentally disabled where it is the most common eating disorder. It is often cigarette butts that are consumed, presumably for the Nicotine content. Most developmental centers have a no-smoking policy due to this fact, and developmentally disabled persons out in the community are often at risk of sickness and/or choking on the litter they find.
It is much more common in developing countries and rural areas than elsewhere. In extreme forms, pica is regarded as a medical disorder. Pregnant women have been known to develop strong cravings for gritty substances like soil or flour. Some theorize that these women may be craving trace minerals lacking in their system. There is a lack of major studies and research in this field.
Pica in children, while common, can be dangerous. Children eating painted plaster containing lead may suffer brain damage from lead poisoning. There is a similar risk from eating dirt near roads that existed prior to the phaseout of tetra-ethyl lead in gasoline or prior to the cessation of the use of contaminated oil (either used, or containing toxic PCBs) to settle dust.
In addition to poisoning, there is also a much greater risk of gastro-intestinal obstruction or tearing in the stomach. This is also true in animals.
The scant research that has been done on the root causes of pica suggest that the majority of those afflicted tend to suffer some biochemical deficiency and more often iron deficiency. The association between pica and iron deficiency anemia is so strong, that most patients with iron deficiency will admit to some form of pica. Often the substance eaten by those with the disorder does not contain the mineral of deficiency. If a mineral deficiency is not identified as the cause of pica, it often leads to a misdiagnosis as a mental disorder.
Treatment emphasizes psychosocial, environmental, and family guidance approaches. Treatment options include: discrimination training between edible and nonedible items, self-protection devices that prohibit placement of objects in the mouth, sensory reinforcement involving screening (covering eyes briefly), contingent aversive oral taste (lemon), contingent aversive smell sensation (ammonia), contingent aversive physical sensation (water mist), brief physical restraint, and overcorrection (correct the environment, or practice appropriate alternative responses).
This involves associating negative consequences with eating non-food items and good consequences with normal behavior. Medications may be helpful in reducing the abnormal eating behavior, if pica occurs in the course of a developmental disorder, such as mental retardation, or pervasive developmental disorder. These conditions may be associated with severe behavioral disturbances, including pica. These medications enhance dopaminergic functioning, which is believed to be associated with the occurrence of pica.
- Acuphagia (ingestion of sharp objects)
- Amylophagia (consumption of starch)
- Bibliophagia (consumption of books)
- Coniophagia (consumption of dust)
- Coprophagia (consumption of excrement)
- Emetophagia (consumption of vomit)
- Geomelophagia (abnormal ingestion of raw potatoes)
- Geophagy (consumption of soil)
- Gooberphagia (pathological consumption of peanuts)
- Lithophagia (ingestion of stones)
- Mucophagy (consumption of mucus)
- Pagophagia (pathological consumption of ice)
- Tobaccophagia (consumption of tobacco)
- Trichophagia (consumption of hair or wool)
- Urophagia (consumption of urine)
- Xylophagia (consumption of wood)
References & BibliographyEdit
- de Koning, N. D., Moreland, F., Valenti, R. J., & Dosen, A. (2007). Feeding and eating disorders. Kingston, NY: National Association for the Dually Diagnosed.
- Donovick, P. J., & Burright, R. G. (1992). Lead poisoning, toxocariasis, and pica: Links to neurobehavioral disorders. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- Ellis, C. R., Singh, N. N., Crews, W. D., Jr., Bonaventura, S. H., & et al. (1997). Pica. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
- Fultz, S. A., & Rojahn, J. (1988). Pica. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- LeBlanc, L. A., Feeney, B. J., & Bennett, C. M. (2006). Pica. New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.
- Molina, I. A., Theriot, M. T., & Dulmus, C. N. (2007). Pica. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Motta, R. W., & Basile, D. M. (1998). Pica. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Wren, F. J., & Tarbell, S. E. (1998). Feeding and growth disorders. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
- Lacey, E P (1990) Broadening the perspective of pica: literature review.Public Health Rep. Jan–Feb; 105(1): 29–35. PMCID: PMC1579989
- Agarwala, S. (1990). Behaviour modification through "contracts": Two case reports: Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 17(1) Mar 1990, 52-55.
- Agarwala, S., & Bhandari, A. (1994). Modification of pica by progressive relaxation and self-management: Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies Vol 10(1-2) Mar-Sep 1994, 37-43.
- Ali, Z. (2001). Pica in people with intellectual disability: A literature review of aetiology, epidemiology and complications: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability Vol 26(3) Sep 2001, 205-215.
- Allen, N. M., & O'Donovan, D. J. (2007). Foam eater: The Journal of Pediatrics Vol 151(6) Dec 2007, 710.
- Arbiter, E. A., & Black, D. (1991). Pica and iron-deficiency anaemia: Child: Care, Health and Development Vol 17(4) Jul-Aug 1991, 231-234.
- Ausman, J., Ball, T. S., & Alexander, D. (1974). Behavior therapy of pica with a profoundly retarded adolescent: Mental Retardation Vol 12(6) Dec 1974, 16-18.
- Baheretibeb, Y., Law, S., & Pain, C. (2008). The girl who ate her house--Pica as an obsessive-compulsive disorder: A case report: Clinical Case Studies Vol 7(1) Feb 2008, 3-11.
- Barnes, C., Monagle, P., & McNamara, J. (2003). Velcroholism: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health Vol 39(5) Jul 2003, 392-392.
- Bashir, A., Loschen, E., Baluga, J., & Kirchner, L. (2002). A case of pica in a patient with mental retardation treated with venlafaxine extended release: Mental Health Aspects of Developmental Disabilities Vol 5(3) Jul-Sep 2002, 87-89.
- Beck, D. A., & Frohberg, N. R. (2005). Coprophagia in an elderly man: A case report and review of the literature: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine Vol 35(4) 2005, 417-427.
- Beecroft, N., Bach, L., Tunstall, N., & Howard, R. (1998). An unusual case of pica: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 13(9) Sep 1998, 638-641.
- Bell, K. E., & Stein, D. M. (1992). Behavioral treatments for pica: A review of empirical studies: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 11(4) May 1992, 377-389.
- Bhandari, A., & Agarwala, S. (1996). Related efficacy of self-monitoring alone and self-monitoring in combination with progressive relaxation in the modification of pica behaviour: Psycho-Lingua Vol 26(2) Jul 1996, 87-91.
- Bieder, J., Nourry, C., & Kepczynski, F. (1982). Pica: Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 140(5) May 1982, 520-529.
- Bogart, L. C., Piersel, W. C., & Gross, E. J. (1995). The long-term treatment of life-threatening pica: A case study of a woman with profound mental retardation living in an applied setting: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities Vol 7(1) Mar 1995, 39-50.
- Bradshaw, J. W. S., Neville, P. F., & Sawyer, D. (1997). Factors affecting pica in the domestic cat: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 52(3-4) Apr 1997, 373-379.
- Bucher, B., Reykdal, B., & Albin, J. (1976). Brief physical restraint to control Pica in retarded children: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 7(2) Jun 1976, 137-140.
- Bugle, C., & Rubin, H. B. (1993). Effects of a nutritional supplement on coprophagia: A study of three cases: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 14(6) Nov-Dec 1993, 445-456.
- Burke, L., & Smith, S. L. (1999). Treatment of pica: Considering least intrusive options when working with individuals who have a developmental handicap and live in a community setting: Developmental Disabilities Bulletin Vol 27(1) 1999, 30-46.
- Carey, L. (1990). Sandplay therapy with a troubled child: The Arts in Psychotherapy Vol 17(3) Fal 1990, 197-209.
- Carter, S. L., Wheeler, J. J., & Mayton, M. R. (2004). Pica: A Review of Recent Assessment and Treatment Procedures: Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities Vol 39(4) Dec 2004, 346-358.
- Choure, J., Quinn, K., & Franco, K. (2006). Baking-Soda Pica in an Adolescent Patient: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 47(6) Nov-Dec 2006, 531-532.
- Corbett, R. W., Ryan, C., & Weinrich, S. P. (2003). Pica in Pregnancy: Does It Affect Pregnancy Outcomes? : MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing Vol 28(2) Mar-Apr 2003, 183-191.
- Danford, D. E., & Huber, A. M. (1982). Pica among mentally retarded adults: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 87(2) Sep 1982, 141-146.
- Donnelly, D. R., & Olczak, P. V. (1990). The effect of differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors (DRI) on pica for cigarettes in persons with intellectual disability: Behavior Modification Vol 14(1) Jan 1990, 81-96.
- Donnelly, D. R., & Olczak, P. V. (1994). A placebo stimulus for the assessment and treatment of pica for tobacco: Behavioral Interventions Vol 9(4) Oct 1994, 247-250.
- Duker, P. C., & Nielen, M. (1993). The use of negative practice for the control of pica behavior: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 24(3) Sep 1993, 249-253.
- Dumaguing, N. I., Singh, I., Sethi, M., & Devanand, D. P. (2003). Pica in the Geriatric Mentally Ill: Unrelenting and Potentially Fatal: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology Vol 16(3) Sep 2003, 189-191.
- Eastwell, H. D. (1979). A pica epidemic: A price for sedentarism among Australian ex-hunter-gatherers: Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes Vol 42(3) Aug 1979, 264-273.
- Edwards, A. A., Mathura, C. B., & Edwards, C. H. (1983). Effects of maternal geophagia on infant and juvenile rats: Journal of the National Medical Association Vol 75(9) Sep 1983, 895-902.
- Ellis CR, Schnoes CJ (2001) Eating disorder: pica. eMedicine Journal, ;2(6):1-8.
- Evans, M. (1990). Pica of cigarette ends causing nicotine toxicity: Mental Handicap Research Vol 3(1) Jan 1990, 95-96.
- Feldman, M. D. (1986). Pica: Current perspectives: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 27(7) Jul 1986, 519-523.
- Ferreri, S. J., Tamm, L., & Wier, K. G. (2006). Using Food Aversion to Decrease Severe Pica by a Child With Autism: Behavior Modification Vol 30(4) Jul 2006, 456-471.
- Finney, J. W., Russo, D. C., & Cataldo, M. F. (1982). Reduction of pica in young children with lead poisoning: Journal of Pediatric Psychology Vol 7(2) Jun 1982, 197-207.
- Fishbain, D. A., & Rotondo, D. J. (1983). Foreign body ingestion associated with delusional beliefs: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 171(5) May 1983, 321-322.
- Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., Kurtz, P. F., & et al. (1994). A preliminary evaluation of empirically derived consequences for the treatment of pica: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 27(3) Fal 1994, 447-457.
- Forsyth, C. J., & Benoit, G. M. (1989). "Rare, ole, dirty snacks": Some research notes on dirt eating: Deviant Behavior Vol 10(1) 1989, 61-68.
- Ginsberg, D. L. (2006). Bupropion SR for Nicotine-Craving Pica in a Developmentally Disabled Adult: Primary Psychiatry Vol 13(12) Dec 2006, 28.
- Gitlin, D. F., Caplan, J. P., Rogers, M. P., Avni-Barron, O., Braun, I., & Barsky, A. J. (2007). Foreign-Body Ingestion in Patients With Personality Disorders: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 48(2) Mar-Apr 2007, 162-166.
- Goh, H.-L., Iwata, B. A., & Kahng, S. W. (1999). Multicomponent assessment and treatment of cigarette pica: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 32(3) Fal 1999, 297-316.
- Goldstein, M. (1998). Adult pica: A clinical nexus of physiology and psychodynamics: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 39(5) Sep-Oct 1998, 465-469.
- Gundogar, D., Demir, S. B., & Eren, I. (2003). Is pica in the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders? : General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2003, 293-294.
- Gunsel, G., & Reimann, F. (1973). An investigation on the psychopathology of pica and hypochromic anemia: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 22(2-6) 1973, 351-358.
- Hagopian, L. P., & Adelinis, J. D. (2001). Response blocking with and without redirection for the treatment of pica: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 34(4) Win 2001, 527-530.
- Hamilton, S., Rothenberg, S. J., Khan, F. A., Manalo, M., & Norris, K. C. (2001). Neonatal lead poisoning from maternal pica behavior during pregnancy: Journal of the National Medical Association Vol 93(9) Sep 2001, 317-319.
- Haoui, R., Gautie, L., & Puisset, F. (2003). Pica: A descriptive study of patients in a speciality medical center: L'Encephale Vol 29(5,Pt1) Sep-Oct 2003, 415-424.
- Henry, J., & Matthews Kwong, A. (2003). Why is geophagy treated like dirt? : Deviant Behavior Vol 24(4) Jul-Aug 2003, 353-371.
- Hirsch, N., & Myles, B. S. (1996). The use of a pica box in reducing pica behavior in a student with autism: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities Vol 11(4) Win 1996, 222-225, 234.
- Houssou, C., & Leprince, J. (1998). Beginning and progression of pica: A thirty-year follow-up of a patient: Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 156(4) Apr 1998, 280-284.
- Jancar, J., & Wiley, Y. V. (1994). Tobaccophagia and mental retardation: Italian Journal of Intellective Impairment Vol 7(1) May 1994, 9-12.
- Jawed, S. H., Krishnan, V. H., Prasher, V. P., & Corbett, J. A. (1993). Worsening of pica as a symptom of depressive illness in a person with severe mental handicap: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 162 Jun 1993, 835-837.
- Johnson, C. R., Hunt, F. M., & Siebert, M. J. (1994). Discrimination training in the treatment of pica and food scavenging: Behavior Modification Vol 18(2) Apr 1994, 214-229.
- Kalfus, G. R., Fisher-Gross, S., Marvullo, M. A., & Nau, P. A. (1987). Outpatient treatment of pica in a developmentally delayed child: Child & Family Behavior Therapy Vol 9(3-4) Fal-Win 1987, 49-63.
- Kern, L., Starosta, K., & Adelman, B. E. (2006). Reducing Pica by Teaching Children to Exchange Inedible Items for Edibles: Behavior Modification Vol 30(2) Mar 2006, 135-158.
- Kinnell, H. G. (1985). Pica as a feature of autism: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 147 Jul 1985, 80-82.
- LeBlanc, L. A., Piazza, C. C., & Krug, M. A. (1997). Comparing methods for maintaining the safety of a child with pica: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 18(3) May-Jun 1997, 215-220.
- Lemanek, K. L., Brown, R. T., Armstrong, F. D., Hood, C., Pegelow, C., & Woods, G. (2002). Dysfunctional eating patterns and symptoms of pica in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease: Clinical Pediatrics Vol 41(7) Sep 2002, 493-500.
- Liu, Y.-L., Malik, N., Sanger, G. J., Friedman, M. I., & Andrews, P. L. R. (2005). Pica--A model of nausea? Species differences in response to cisplatin: Physiology & Behavior Vol 85(3) Jun 2005, 271-277.
- Lofts, R. H., Schroeder, S. R., & Maier, R. H. (1990). Effects of serum zinc supplementation on pica behavior of persons with mental retardation: American Journal on Mental Retardation Vol 95(1) Jul 1990, 103-109.
- Lohiya, G. S., Crinella, F. M., Figueroa, L. T., Caires, S., & et al. (1996). Lead exposure of people with developmental disabilities: Success of control measures: Mental Retardation Vol 34(4) Aug 1996, 215-219.
- Lohiya, G.-S., Tan-Figueroa, L., van Le, H., & Rusu, L. (2005). Esophageal obstruction by a lemon that required esophagotomy: Thoughts on prevention: Mental Retardation Vol 43(5) Oct 2005, 317-321.
- Luiselli JK: Pica as a obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 1996;27:195-6.
- Mace, F. C., & Knight, D. (1986). Functional analysis and treatment of severe pica: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 19(4) Win 1986, 411-416.
- Madden, L. J., Seeley, R. J., & Woods, S. C. (1999). Intraventricular neuropeptide Y decreases need-induced sodium appetite and increases pica in rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 113(4) Aug 1999, 826-832.
- Madden, N. A., Russo, D. C., & Cataldo, M. F. (1980). Behavioral treatment of pica in children with lead poisoning: Child Behavior Therapy Vol 2(4) Win 1980, 67-81.
- Madden, N. A., Russo, D. C., & Cataldo, M. F. (1980). Environmental influences on mouthing in children with lead intoxication: Journal of Pediatric Psychology Vol 5(2) Jun 1980, 207-216.
- Marcus, L. C., & Stambler, M. (1979). Visceral larva migrans and eosinophilia in an emotionally disturbed child: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 40(3) Mar 1979, 139-140.
- Matson, J. L., & Bamburg, J. W. (1999). A descriptive study of pica behavior in persons with mental retardation: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities Vol 11(4) Dec 1999, 353-361.
- Matson, J. L., Stephens, R. M., & Smith, C. (1978). Treatment of self-injurious behaviour with overcorrection: Journal of Mental Deficiency Research Vol 22(3) Sep 1978, 175-178.
- McAdam, D. B., Sherman, J. A., Sheldon, J. B., & Napolitano, D. A. (2004). Behavioral interventions to reduce the pica of persons with developmental disabilities: Behavior Modification Vol 28(1) Jan 2004, 45-72.
- McAlpine, C., & Singh, N. N. (1986). Pica in institutionalized mentally retarded persons: Journal of Mental Deficiency Research Vol 30(2) Jun 1986, 171-178.
- McCord, B. E., Grosser, J. W., Iwata, B. A., & Powers, L. A. (2005). An analysis of response-blocking parameters in the prevention of pica: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 38(3) Fal 2005, 391-394.
- McCutcheon, B., Ballard, M., & McCaffrey, R. J. (1992). Intraperitoneally injected cholecystokinin-octapeptide activates pica in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 51(3) Mar 1992, 543-547.
- McGreevey, P. D., Hawson, L. A., Habermann, T. C., & Cattle, S. R. (2001). Geophagia in horses: A short note on 13 cases: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 71(2) Feb 2001, 119-125.
- McLoughlin, I. J. (1988). Pica as a cause of death in three mentally handicapped men: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 152 Jun 1988, 842-845.
- McLoughlin, I. J., & Hassanyeh, F. (1990). Pica in a patient with anorexia nervosa: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 156 Apr 1990, 568-570.
- Mihailidou, H., Galanakis, E., Paspalaki, P., Borgia, P., & Mantzouranis, E. (2002). Pica and the Elephant's Ear: Journal of Child Neurology Vol 17(11) Nov 2002, 855-856.
- Mitchell, D., & et al. (1976). Poison induced pica in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 17(4) Oct 1976, 691-697.
- Mitchell, D., Winter, W., & Morisaki, C. M. (1977). Conditioned taste aversions accompanied by geophagia: Evidence for the occurrence of psychological factors in the etiology of pica: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 39(6) Nov-Dec 1977, 402-412.
- Myles, B. S., Simpson, R. L., & Hirsch, N. C. (1997). A review of literature on interventions to reduce pica in individuals with developmental disabilities: Autism Vol 1(1) Jul 1997, 77-95.
- Nash, D. L., Broome, J., & Stone, S. (1987). Behavior modification of pica in a geriatric patient: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 35(1) Jan 1987, 79-80.
- Neil, J. F., Horn, T. L., & Himmelhoch, J. M. (1977). Psychotic pica, nicotinism, and complicated myocardial infarction: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 38(9) Sep 1977, 724-726.
- Northup, J., Fisher, W., Kahang, S. W., & Harrell, R. (1997). An assessment of the necessary strength of behavioral treatments for severe behavior problems: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities Vol 9(1) Mar 1997, 1-16.
- Okuda, M., Harada, H., Mizutani, H., & Hamanaka, T. (1998). Pica in demented patients: Seishin Igaku (Clinical Psychiatry) Vol 40(10) Oct 1998, 1103-1105.
- Pace, G. M., & Toyer, E. A. (2000). The effects of a vitamin supplement on the pica of a child with severe mental retardation: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 33(4) Win 2000, 619-622.
- Paisey, T. J., & Whitney, R. B. (1989). A long-term case study of analysis, response suppression, and treatment maintenance involving life-threatening pica: Behavioral Residential Treatment Vol 4(3) Jul 1989, 191-211.
- Paniagua, F. A., Braverman, C., & Capriotti, R. M. (1986). Use of a treatment package in the management of a profoundly mentally retarded girl's pica and self-stimulation: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 90(5) Mar 1986, 550-557.
- Parry-Jones, B. (1992). Pagophagia, or compulsive ice consumption: A historical perspective: Psychological Medicine Vol 22(3) Aug 1992, 561-571.
- Parry-Jones, B., & Parry-Jones, W. L. (1992). Pica: Symptom or eating disorder? A historical assessment: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 160 Mar 1992, 341-354.
- Parry-Jones, W. L., & Parry-Jones, B. (1994). Implications of historical evidence for the classification of eating disorders: A dimension overlooked in DSM-III--R and ICD-10: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 165(3) Sep 1994, 287-292.
- Piazza, C. C., Fisher, W. W., Hanley, G. P., LeBlanc, L. A., Worsdell, A. S., Lindauer, S. E., et al. (1998). Treatment of pica through multiple analyses of its reinforcing functions: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 31(2) Sum 1998, 165-189.
- Piazza, C. C., Hanley, G. P., Blakeley-Smith, A. B., & Kinsman, A. M. (2000). Effects of search skills training on the pica of a blind boy: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities Vol 12(1) Mar 2000, 35-41.
- Piazza, C. C., Hanley, G. P., & Fisher, W. W. (1996). Functional analysis and treatment of cigarette pica: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 29(4) Win 1996, 437-450.
- Piazza, C. C., Roane, H. S., Keeney, K. M., Boney, B. R., & Abt, K. A. (2002). Varying response effort in the treatment of pica maintained by automatic reinforcement: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 35(3) Fal 2002, 233-246.
- Prince, I. (1989). Pica and geophagia in cross-cultural perspective: Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review Vol 26(3) 1989, 167-197.
- Pueschel, S. M., Cullen, S. M., Howard, R. B., & Cullinane, M. M. (1977). Pathogenetic considerations of pica in lead poisoning: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine Vol 8(1) 1977-1978, 13-24.
- Rapp, J. T., Dozier, C. L., & Carr, J. E. (2001). Functional assessment and treatment of pica: A single-case experiment: Behavioral Interventions Vol 16(2) Apr-Jun 2001, 111-125.
- Read, A., Beaty, P., Corner, J., & Sommerville, C. (1996). Reducing Naltrexone-resistant hyperphagia using laser acupuncture to increase endogenous opiates: Brain Injury Vol 10(12) Dec 1996, 911-919.
- Reid, R. M. (1992). Cultural and medical perspectives on geophagia: Medical Anthropology Vol 13(4) Jan 1992, 337-351.
- Ricciardi, J. N., Luiselli, J. K., Terrill, S., & Reardon, K. (2003). Alternative response training with contingent practice as intervention for pica in a school setting: Behavioral Interventions Vol 18(3) Jul 2003, 219-226.
- Richard, J., Fortini, K., & Droz, P. (1989). Allotriophagia: A medical perspective: Confrontations Psychiatriques Vol 22(31) 1989, 319-334.
- Rojahn, J., McGonigle, J. J., Curcio, C., & Dixon, M. J. (1987). Suppression of pica by water mist and aromatic ammonia: A comparative analysis: Behavior Modification Vol 11(1) Jan 1987, 65-74.
- Rojahn, J., Schroeder, S. R., & Mulick, J. A. (1980). Ecological assessment of self-protective devices in three profoundly retarded adults: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 10(1) Mar 1980, 59-66.
- Rose EA, Porcerelli JH, Neale, AV: Pica: common but commonly missed. J Am Bd Fam Practice 2000;13(5):353-58.
- Sayetta RB(1986) Pica: an overview. Am Fam Physician ;7:174-5.
- Schreier, H. A. (1990). OCD and tricyclics: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 29(4) Jul 1990, 668-669.
- Sghirlanzoni, A., & Carella, F. (2000). The insomnia plague: A Gabriel Garcia Marquez story: Neurological Sciences Vol 21(4) Aug 2000, 251-253.
- Shisslak, C. M., Swain, B. J., & Crago, M. (1987). 32 years of persistent pica: A case study: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 6(5) Sep 1987, 663-670.
- Singh, N. N. (1983). Behavioral treatment of pica in mentally retarded persons: Psychiatric Aspects of Mental Retardation Newsletter Vol 2(9) Sep 1983, 33-36.
- Singh, N. N., & Bakker, L. W. (1984). Suppression of pica by overcorrection and physical restraint: A comparative analysis: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 14(3) Sep 1984, 331-341.
- Singh, N. N., Ellis, C. R., Crews, W. D., & Singh, Y. N. (1994). Does diminished dopaminergic neurotransmission increase pica? : Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Vol 4(2) Sum 1994, 93-99.
- Singh, N. N., & Winton, A. S. (1984). Effects of a screening procedure on pica and collateral behaviors: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 15(1) Mar 1984, 59-65.
- Singh, N. N., & Winton, A. S. (1985). Controlling pica by components of an overcorrection procedure: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 90(1) Jul 1985, 40-45.
- Smith, M. D. (1987). Treatment of pica in an adult disabled by autism by differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 18(3) Sep 1987, 285-288.
- Snowdon, C. T. (1977). A nutritional basis for lead pica: Physiology & Behavior Vol 18(5) May 1977, 885-893.
- Snowdon and Sanderson (1974) Lead Pica Produced in Rats. Science,11,92-94
- Solyom, C., Solyom, L., & Freeman, R. J. (1991). An unusual case of pica: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 36(1) Feb 1991, 50-53.
- Stanley, A. E., & Glenn, K. (1989). An integrated treatment approach to pica: A case report: Journal of the Multihandicapped Person Vol 2(2) Jun 1989, 155-165.
- Starn, A. L., & Udall, J. N., Jr. (2008). Iron deficiency anemia, pica, and restless legs syndrome in a teenage girl: Clinical Pediatrics Vol 47(1) Jan-Feb 2008, 83-85.
- Stein DJ, Bouwer C, van Heerden B (1996) Pica and the obsessive- compulsive spectrum disorders. S Afr Med J ;86(12Suppl):1586-8, 1591-2.
- Stiegler, L. N. (2005). Understanding Pica Behavior: A Review for Clinical and Education Professionals: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities Vol 20(1) Spr 2005, 27-38.
- Swift, I., Paquette, D., Davison, K., & Saeed, H. (1999). Pica and trace metal deficiencies in adults with developmental disabilities: British Journal of Developmental Disabilities Vol 45(89, Pt 2) Jul 1999, 111-117.
- Tewari, S., Krishnan, V. H. R., Valsalan, V. C., & Roy, A. (1995). Pica in a learning disability hospital: A clinical survey: British Journal of Developmental Disabilities Vol 41(80, Pt 1) Jan 1995, 13-22.
- Tierney, I. R., & Annan, A. (1978). A wood-gnawing sensor for recording collateral behavior emitted by rats on differential reinforcement of low rate schedules: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 10(5) Oct 1978, 685-688.
- Uno, A., Takeda, N., Horii, A., Sakata, Y., Yamatodani, A., & Kubo, T. (2000). Effects of amygdala or hippocampus lesion on hypergravity-induced motion sickness in rats: Acta Oto-Laryngologica Vol 120(7) 2000, 860-865.
- Watson, P. J., Hawkins, C., McKinney, J., Beatey, S., & et al. (1987). Inhibited drinking and pica in rats following 2-deoxy-D-glucose: Physiology & Behavior Vol 39(6) 1987, 745-752.
- Winton, A. S., & Singh, N. N. (1983). Suppression of pica using brief-duration physical restraint: Journal of Mental Deficiency Research Vol 27(2) Jun 1983, 93-103.
- Woods, D. W., Miltenberger, R. G., & Lumley, V. A. (1996). A simplified habit reversal treatment for pica-related chewing: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 27(3) Sep 1996, 257-262.
- Yalug, I., Kirmizi-Alsan, E., & Tufan, A. E. (2007). Adult onset paper pica in the context of anorexia nervosa with major depressive disorder and a history of childhood geophagia: A case report: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 31(6) Aug 2007, 1341-1342.
- Yamamoto, K., Ngan, M. P., Takeda, N., Yamatodani, A., & Rudd, J. A. (2004). Differential activity of drugs to induce emesis and pica behavior in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) and rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 83(1) Oct 2004, 151-156.
- Yamamoto, K., Nohara, K., Furuya, T., & Yamatodani, A. (2005). Ondansetron, dexamethasone and an NK-sub-1 antagonist block radiation sickness in mice: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 82(1) Sep 2005, 24-29.
- Dolinsky, Z. S. (1982). The progression of behavioral and pathological effects of the parasite Toxocara canis in the mouse: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Frazer, J. E. (1989). An experimental analysis of pica: FI schedule effects in three profoundly retarded men: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Goh, H.-L. (1998). Multicomponent assessment and treatment of cigarette pica. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Hunt, T. J. (1978). Caretaker attitude as related to pica and lead poisoning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- McCaffrey, R. J. (1980). Motion sickness-induced pica in the rat: A test of the sensory rearrangement theory: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Witkowski, B. C. (1991). Pica behavior and treatment of institutionalized females with developmental disabilities: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Young, S. L. (2008). A biocultural study of the relationship between pica and anemia. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|