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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
- Main article: Mental health and physical exercise
- Main article: Psychological aspects of physical exercise
Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health. It is performed for many different reasons. These include: strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, and weight loss or maintenance. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent diseases of affluence such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity. It also improves mental health and helps prevent depression. Childhood obesity is a growing global concern and physical exercise may help decrease the effects of childhood obesity in developed countries.
Types of exerciseEdit
Exercises are generally grouped into three types depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:
- Flexibility exercises such as stretching improve the range of motion of muscles and joints.
- Aerobic exercises such as cycling, swimming, walking, rowing, running, hiking or playing tennis focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance.
- Anaerobic exercises such as weight training, functional training or sprinting increase short-term muscle strength.
Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system.
Frequent and regular aerobic exercise has been shown to help prevent or treat serious and life-threatening chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, insomnia, and depression. Strength training appears to have continuous energy-burning effects that persist for about 24 hours after the training, though they do not offer the same cardiovascular benefits as aerobic exercises do.
There is conflicting evidence as to whether vigorous exercise (more than 70% of VO2 Max) is more or less beneficial than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max). Some studies have shown that vigorous exercise executed by healthy individuals can effectively increase opioid peptides (aka endorphins, a naturally occurring opiate that in conjunction with other neurotransmitters is responsible for exercise induced euphoria and has been shown to be addictive), positively influence hormone production (i.e., increase testosterone and growth hormone), benefits that are not as fully realized with moderate exercise.
Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functioning via improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. In addition, physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. For instance, it reduces the risk of developing dementia. Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that frequent exercise may reverse alcohol-induced brain damage.
Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells.
Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise also work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training). Such changes are generally beneficial and healthy if they occur in response to exercise.
Not everyone benefits equally from exercise. There is tremendous variation in individual response to training: where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others will never get any benefit at all from the exercise. Similarly, only a minority of people will show significant muscle growth after prolonged weight training, while a larger fraction experience improvements in strength. This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population. Studies have shown that exercising in middle age leads to better physical ability later in life.
Many myths have arisen surrounding exercise, some of which have a basis in reality, and some which are completely false. Myths include:
- That excessive exercise can cause immediate death. Death by exercise has some small basis in fact. Water intoxication can result from prolific sweating (producing electrolyte losses) combined with consumption of large amounts of plain water and insufficient replenishment of electrolytes, especially salt and potassium (e.g. when running a marathon). It is also possible to die from a heart attack or similar affliction if overly intense exercise is performed by someone who is not at an appropriate level of fitness for that particular activity. A doctor should always be consulted before any radical changes are made to a person's current exercise routine. Rhabdomyolysis is also a risk. Other common dangers may occur from extreme overheating or aggravation of a physical defect, such as a thrombosis or aneurysm.
- That weightlifting makes you short or stops growth. One caveat is that heavy weight training in adolescents can damage the epiphyseal plate of long bones. [How to reference and link to summary or text]
Targeted fat reductionEdit
Spot reduction is a myth that exercise and training a particular body part will preferentially shed the fat on that part; for example, that doing sit-ups is the most direct way to reduce subcutaneous belly fat. This is false: one cannot reduce fat from one area of the body to the exclusion of others. Most of the energy derived from fat gets to the muscle through the bloodstream and reduces stored fat in the entire body, from the last place where fat was deposited. Sit-ups may improve the size and shape of abdominal muscles but will not specifically target belly fat for loss. Such exercise might help reduce overall body fat and shrink the size of fat cells.
Muscle and fat tissueEdit
Some peopleTemplate:Who? incorrectly believe that muscle tissue will turn into fat tissue once a person stops exercising. This is not literally true — fat tissue and muscle tissue are fundamentally different — but the common expression that "muscle will turn to fat" is truthful in the sense that catabolism of muscle fibers for energy can result in excess glucose being stored as fat. Moreover, the composition of a body part can change toward less muscle and more fat, so that a cross-section of the upper-arm for example, will have a greater area corresponding to fat and a smaller area corresponding to muscle. This is not muscle "turning into fat" however — it is simply a combination of muscle atrophy and increased fat storage in different tissues of the same body part. Another element of increased fatty deposits is that of diet, as most trainees will not significantly reduce their diet in order to compensate for the lack of exercise/activity.
Exercise is a stressor and the stresses of exercise have a catabolic effect on the body - contractile proteins within muscles are consumed for energy, carbohydrates and fats are similarly consumed and connective tissues are stressed and can form micro-tears. However, given adequate nutrition and sufficient rest to avoid overtraining, the body's reaction to this stimulus is to adapt and replete tissues at a higher level than that existing before exercising. The results are all the training effects of regular exercise: increased muscular strength, endurance, bone density, and connective tissue toughness.
Too much exercise can be harmful. The body parts exercised need at least a day of rest, which is why some health experts say one should exercise every other day or 3 times a week. Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases, and muscle tissue may develop slowly. It has also been noted by the medical field that expectant mothers should never exercise two days consecutively.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of "inappropriate" varying according to the individual. For many activities, especially running, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules. In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss. Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits. Another danger is overtraining in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts.
Stopping excessive exercise suddenly can also create a change in mood. Feelings of depression and agitation can occur when withdrawal from the natural endorphins produced by exercise occurs. Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations. While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging. This must be determined by each individual.
Nutrition and recoveryEdit
Proper nutrition is at least as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients whilst providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise.
Proper rest and recovery are also as important to health as exercise; otherwise the body exists in a permanently injured state and will not improve or adapt adequately to the exercise. Hence, it is important to remember to allow adequate recovery between exercise sessions. It is necessary to refill the glycogen stores in the skeletal muscles and liver. After exercise, there is a 30 minute window critical to muscle recovery. Before doing anything else, one should drink something for recovery. Liquids are ideal after exercise and there are several studies that show low-fat milk and chocolate milk as being effective recovery beverages because of its ideal 4:1 combination of carbohydrate and protein that fuels and replenishes our muscles the best.
The above two factors can be compromised by psychological compulsions (eating disorders such as exercise bulimia, anorexia, and other bulimias), misinformation, a lack of organization, or a lack of motivation. These all lead to a decreased state of health.
Exercise and brain functionEdit
In the long term, exercise is beneficial to the brain by:
- increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain
- increasing growth factors that help create new nerve cells and promote synaptic plasticity
- increasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin
Categories of physical exerciseEdit
Sometimes the terms 'dynamic' and 'static' are used. 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow. Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly.
Active exhalation during physical exercise helps the body to increase its maximum lung capacity. This results in greater efficiency, since the heart has to do less work to oxygenate the muscles, and there is also increased muscular efficiency through greater blood flow. Consciously breathing deeply during aerobic exercise helps this development of the heart and lungs. [How to reference and link to summary or text]
- Active Living
- Aerobic exercise
- Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT)
- Exercise physiology
- Exercise equipment
- Exercise hypertension
- Exercise-induced anaphylaxis
- Exercise induced nausea
- Exercise physiology
- Exercise-induced asthma
- Exercise intensity
- Exercise intolerance
- Health behavior
- List of basic exercise topics
- Movement therapy
- Physical fitness
- Sports training
- Weight control
- ↑ Stampfer, M., Hu, F., Manson, J., Rimm, E., Willett, W. (2000) Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women through diet and lifestyle. The New England Journal of Medicine, 343(1), 16-23. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- ↑ Hu., F., Manson, J., Stampfer, M., Graham, C., et al. (2001). Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345(11), 790-797. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- ↑ O'Connor, D., Crowe, M., Spinks, W. 2006. Effects of static stretching on leg power during cycling. Turin, 46(1), 52-56. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- ↑ Wilmore, J., Knuttgen, H. 2003. Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Improving Fitness for Health Benefits. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 31(5). 45. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- ↑ de Vos, N., Singh, N., Ross, D., Stavrinos, T., et al. 2005. Optimal Load for Increasing Muscle Power During Explosive Resistance Training in Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology, 60A(5), 638-647. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- ↑ >Jason Menoutis, Ed.D. (2008). Physical Activity and Health.. Nasm Pro.
- ↑ Hanc, J. 1987. Your Health Behind the Runner\'s Euphoria. \'\'Newsday, April 21, 1987,\'\' 11. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database
- ↑ van Praag H, Kempermann G, Gage FH. (1999). Ontogeny Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.. Nature Neuroscience. 2 (3): 266–70.
- ↑ Clément Grondard et al. (2005). Regular Exercise Prolongs Survival in a Type 2 Spinal Muscular Atrophy Model Mouse.. The Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (33): 7615–7622.
- ↑ West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources
- ↑ Could Exercise Regenerate Alcohol-Damaged Neurons? - Levin 41 (23): 20 - Psychiatr News
- ↑ Edward McAuley,* Arthur F. Kramer, and Stanley J. Colcombe (2004). Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older Adults: a brief review.. BRAIN, BEHAVIOR, and IMMUNITY. 18 (2004): 214–220.
- ↑ Bouchard, Claude, Ping An, Treva Rice, James S. Skinner, Jack H. Wilmore, Jacques Gagnon, Louis Perusse, Arthus S. Leon, D. C. Rao (September 1999). Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study.. Journal of Applied Physiology 87 (3): 1003–1008.
- ↑ includeonly>Kolata, Gina. "Why Some People Won't Be Fit Despite Exercise", The New York Times, February 12, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
- ↑ Hubal, MJ, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Price TB, Hoffman EP, Angelopoulos TJ, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Pescatello LS, Visich PS, Zoeller RF, Seip RL, Clarkson PM (June 2005). Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training.. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 37 (6): 964–972.
- ↑ Brutsaert, Tom D., Esteban J. Parra (2006). What makes a champion? Explaining variation in human athletic performance.. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 151: 109–123.
- ↑ includeonly>Geddes, Linda. "Superhuman", New Scientist, 2007-07-28, pp. 35-41.
- ↑ includeonly>"Being active combats risk of functional problems".
- ↑ Austin, B. 2006. Don't Let Your Body Go Into Starvation Mode. Wisconsin State Journal, April 1, 2006, 46. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- ↑ Alexander, C. 1998. Cutting weight, losing life. News & Observer, February 8, 1998, A.1. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- ↑ Jimenez, C., Pacheco, E., Moreno, A., Carpenter, A. 1996. A Soldier's Neck and Shoulder Pain. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 24(6), 81-82. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- ↑ The Physicial and Sportsmedicine on Overtraining
- ↑ Julia Berry, Anne Bradley; Hillery Magness. Amenorrhea. The Female Athlete Triad. University of Oregon, Department of Human Physiology. URL accessed on 2007-08-14.
- ↑ Kimber, N., Heigenhauser, G., Spriet, L., and Dyck, D. 2003. Skeletal muscle fat and carbohydrate metabolism during recovery from glycogen-depleting exercise in humans. The Journal of Phsyiology, 548(Pt. 3), 919-927.
- ↑ http://web.archive.org/web/20081216230450/http://www.winforum.org/PES-pdf/Spring-2008-web.pdf
- ↑ http://www.betterbreakfast.org/Quotable.html
- ↑ Mirkin, G. 2005. Exercise requires time for recovery. Washington Times, May 29, 2005, C.11. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- ↑ Hunsberger JG, Newton SS, Bennett AH, Duman CH, Russell DS, Salton SR, Duman RS (2007). Antidepressant actions of the exercise-regulated gene VGF. Nat. Med. 13 (12): 1476–82.
- ↑ Parker-Pope, T. (2001). For a Healthy Brain You Really Need to Use Your Head -- Physical and Mental Exercise Can Stave Off Mental Decline. The Wall Street Journal Europe, November 26, 2001, 8. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
- Donatelle, Rebecca J. (2005). Health, The Basics, 6th ed., San Francisco: Pearson Education.
- Hardman, A.; Stensel, D. 2009. Physical Activity and Health: The Evidence Explained. London: Routledge ISBN 978-0-415-42198-0
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