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{{ClinPsy}}
 
{{ClinPsy}}
'''Physical dependence''' describes increased [[drug tolerance|tolerance]] of a drug combined with a physical need of the drug to function. Abrupt cessation of the drug is typically associated with negative physical [[withdrawal]] symptoms.
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'''Physical dependence''' refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical [[withdrawal]] symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. it is to be distinguished from [[drug dependency]] which is characterised by a psychological craving for a drug.<ref>{{cite web
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Physical dependence is distinguished from [[addiction]]. While addiction tends to describe [[psychological]] and [[behavioral]] attributes, physical dependence is defined primarily using physical and [[biological]] concepts.
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| authorlink =
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| coauthors =
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| title = Drug Addiction
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| work =
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| publisher = CNN
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| date =
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| url = http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/DS/00183.html
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| format =
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| doi =
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| accessdate = }}</ref> From the point of view of the dependent person, "dependence is duress," argues addiction researcher Griffith Edwards.<ref>Griffith Edwards. ''Alcohol: The World's Favourite Drug''. 1st US ed. Thomas Dunne Books: 2002. ISBN 0-312-28387-3. P 72.</ref>
   
 
==Symptoms==
 
==Symptoms==
Persons physically dependent on a drug typically require larger doses of a drug over time to attain the same effect, a condition known as [[drug tolerance]]. Additionally, withdrawal of the drug produces symptoms including [[nausea]], [[anxiety]], [[hallucinations]], body aches, and excessive sweating.
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Increased heart rate and/or blood pressure, sweating, and tremors are common signs of withdrawal. More serious symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and visual hallucinations indicate a serious emergency and the need for immediate medical care. Alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates are the only commonly abused substances that can be fatal in withdrawal. Abrupt withdrawal from other drugs, such as [[opioid]]s or [[psychostimulant]]s, can exaggerate mild to moderate [[neurotoxicity|neurotoxic]] side effects due to [[hyperthermia]] and generation of [[free radicals]]<ref>Sharma HS, Sjöquist PO, Ali SF. "Drugs of abuse-induced hyperthermia, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neurotoxicity: neuroprotective effects of a new antioxidant compound H-290/51." ''Current Pharmaceutical Design''. 2007;13(18):1903-23. PMID 17584116</ref>, but life-threatening complications are very rare.
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==Treatment==
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Treatment for physical dependence depends upon the drug being withdrawn and often includes administration of another drug, especially for substances that can be dangerous when abruptly discontinued. Treatment usually requires the initiation and then tapering of a medication that has a similar action in the brain but a longer half-life.
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==Difference from Addiction==
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Physical dependence is different from [[drug addiction]]. The latter is often characterized by a psychological need for a drug, while the former can often be the result of legal, long-term use of medicine.<ref>{{cite web
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| last =
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| first =
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| authorlink =
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| coauthors =
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| title = Drug Abuse - Addiction vs. Dependence
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| work =
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| publisher = Our Chronic Pain Mission
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| date =
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| url = http://www.cpmission.com/main/addiction.html
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| format =
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| doi =
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| accessdate = }}</ref>
   
 
==Drugs that cause physical dependence==
 
==Drugs that cause physical dependence==
* [[alcohol]]
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* [[barbiturate]]s
* [[opiates]] such as [[morphine]], [[heroin]], [[codeine]], and [[oxycodone]]
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* [[benzodiazepine]]s
* [[benzodiazepine]]s such as [[valium]], [[lorazepam]], [[alprazolam]], and [[clonazepam]]
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* [[ethyl alcohol]] ([[alcoholic beverage]])
* [[barbiturate]]s such as [[phenobarbital]], [[amobarbital]], and [[methylphenobarbital]]
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* [[Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid|GHB]]
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* [[methaqualone]] (Quaalude®)
 
* [[nicotine]]
 
* [[nicotine]]
* [[caffeine]]
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* [[opioid]]s
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* [[amphetamine]]s
   
[[Amphetamine]] and [[cocaine]] produce little or no physical dependence.
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== References ==
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<references/>
==Treatment==
 
Treatment for drug dependence depends upon the drug being withdrawn and often includes administration of another drug, especially for substances that can be dangerous when abruptly discontinued. Alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates are the only commonly abused substances that can be fatal in withdrawal. Increased heart rate and/or blood pressure, sweating, and tremors are common signs of withdrawal; confusion, seizures, and visual hallucinations indicate a serious emergency and the need for immediate medical care. Treatment usually requires the initiation and then tapering of a medication that has a similar action in the brain but a longer half-life. Though quite unpleasant and potentially dramatic, withdrawal from opiates is safe without medical intervention.
 
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[SSRI discontinuation syndrome]]
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*[[Addiction]]
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*[[Addiction recovery groups]]
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*[[Discontinuation syndrome]]
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*[[Rebound insomnia]]
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001522.htm#Definition National Institutes of Health MedlinePlus Encyclopedia]
 
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001522.htm#Definition National Institutes of Health MedlinePlus Encyclopedia]
   
== References ==
 
 
*''Drugs causing physical dependence taken from Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15, Chapter 195" [http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/tables/195tb1.jsp Merck Manual].''
 
*''Drugs causing physical dependence taken from Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15, Chapter 195" [http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/tables/195tb1.jsp Merck Manual].''
   
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{{Mental and behavioural disorders}}
 
[[Category:Addiction]]
 
[[Category:Addiction]]
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{{enWP|Physical dependence}}

Latest revision as of 01:00, February 29, 2008

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Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. it is to be distinguished from drug dependency which is characterised by a psychological craving for a drug.[1] From the point of view of the dependent person, "dependence is duress," argues addiction researcher Griffith Edwards.[2]

SymptomsEdit

Increased heart rate and/or blood pressure, sweating, and tremors are common signs of withdrawal. More serious symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and visual hallucinations indicate a serious emergency and the need for immediate medical care. Alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates are the only commonly abused substances that can be fatal in withdrawal. Abrupt withdrawal from other drugs, such as opioids or psychostimulants, can exaggerate mild to moderate neurotoxic side effects due to hyperthermia and generation of free radicals[3], but life-threatening complications are very rare.

TreatmentEdit

Treatment for physical dependence depends upon the drug being withdrawn and often includes administration of another drug, especially for substances that can be dangerous when abruptly discontinued. Treatment usually requires the initiation and then tapering of a medication that has a similar action in the brain but a longer half-life.

Difference from AddictionEdit

Physical dependence is different from drug addiction. The latter is often characterized by a psychological need for a drug, while the former can often be the result of legal, long-term use of medicine.[4]

Drugs that cause physical dependenceEdit

References Edit

  1. Drug Addiction. CNN.
  2. Griffith Edwards. Alcohol: The World's Favourite Drug. 1st US ed. Thomas Dunne Books: 2002. ISBN 0-312-28387-3. P 72.
  3. Sharma HS, Sjöquist PO, Ali SF. "Drugs of abuse-induced hyperthermia, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neurotoxicity: neuroprotective effects of a new antioxidant compound H-290/51." Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2007;13(18):1903-23. PMID 17584116
  4. Drug Abuse - Addiction vs. Dependence. Our Chronic Pain Mission.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

  • Drugs causing physical dependence taken from Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15, Chapter 195" Merck Manual.


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