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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
|Other names||thiodiphenylamine, dibenzothiazine|
|Molar mass||199.2762 g/mol|
|Appearance|| yellow rhombic leaflets or
|Density and phase||? g/cm3, solid at STP|
|Soluble||benzene, ether, hot acetic acid,|
|Insoluble||water, petroleum ether, chloroform|
|Melting point||185 °C|
|Boiling point||371 °C|
|Acidity (pKa)||approx 23 in DMSO|
| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Phenothiazine is a benzo derivative of thiazine now most commonly used as an intermediate chemical in the manufacture of various psychiatric drugs. It originally was developed as a synthetic dye in 1883, and it was introduced by DuPont as an insecticide in 1935.
Phenothiazine pesticides work by affecting the nervous system of insects, inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine by disabling the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Many of the side effects of phenothiazine neuroleptic antipsychotics are due to their anticholinergic blocking effects. 
The term "phenothiazines" is used to describe the largest of the five main classes of neuroleptic antipsychotic drugs. These drugs have antipsychotic and, often, antiemetic properties, although they may also cause severe side effects such as akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, extrapyramidal symptoms, and the rare but potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
There are three groups of phenothiazine antipsychotics, differing by their chemical structure and their pharmacological effects:
|moderate||Chlorpromazine (marketed as Thorazine, Chlor-PZ, Klorazine, Promachlor, Promapar, Sonazine, Chlorprom, Chlor-Promanyl, Largactil)||strong||moderate|
|Promazine (trade name Sparine)||moderate||moderate|
|Triflupromazine (trade names Stelazine, Clinazine, Novaflurazine, Pentazine, Terfluzine, Triflurin, Vesprin)||strong||moderate/strong|
|Levomepromazine in Germany and Methotrimeprazine in America (trade names Nozinan, Nozinan, Levoprome)||extremely strong||low|
|Piperidines||strong||Mesoridazine (trade name Serentil)||strong||weak|
|Thioridazine (trade names Mellaril, Novoridazine, Thioril)||strong||weak|
|Piperazines||weak||Fluphenazine (trade names Prolixin, Permitil, Modecate, Moditen)||weak/moderate||strong|
|Perphenazine (sold as Trilafon, Etrafon, Triavil, Phenazine, Etrafon)||weak/moderate||strong|
|Flupentixol (sold as Depixol, Fluanxol)||moderate||strong|
|Prochlorperazine (trade names Compazine, Stemetil)|
|Trifluoperazine (trade name Stelazine)||moderate||strong|
- ↑ Whitaker R (2004). The case against antipsychotic drugs: a 50-year record of doing more harm than good. Med. Hypotheses 62 (1): 5-13.
- ↑ History of Insecticides and Control Equipment Clemson University Pesticide Information Program.
- ↑ "Facts and Comparisons" III W. Port Plaza, Suite 300 St. Louis MO. USA 63146-3098 (telephone 314-216-2100 or 1-800-223-0554). The updatable section called "Antipsychotic Agents" is (c)1990
- Hendricks, Christensen, J.B., and Kristiansen, Jette E. Sonderborg, Denmark. "Antibakterielle Eigenschaften der Phenothiazine: Eine Behandlungsoption für die Zukunft?" Chemotherapie Journal. 13.5. (2004): 203–205. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesesellschaft mbH. 21 August 2005. (PDF).
- PubChem Substance Summary: Phenothiazine National Center for Biotechnology Information.
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