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Pervasive developmental disorder

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Pervasive developmental disorder
ICD-10 F84
ICD-9 299
OMIM [1]
DiseasesDB 33524
MedlinePlus [2]
eMedicine ped/1780
MeSH {{{MeshNumber}}}

The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication. The pervasive developmental disorders are:[1]

The first three of these disorders are commonly called the autism spectrum disorders; the last two disorders are much rarer, and are sometimes placed in the autism spectrum and sometimes not.[2][3]

Parents may note symptoms of PDD as early as infancy and typically onset is prior to three years of age. PDD itself does not affect life expectancy.

There is a division among doctors on the use of the term PDD.[1] Many use the term PDD as a short way of saying PDD-NOS.[1] Others use the general category label of PDD because they are hesitant to diagnose very young children with a specific type of PDD, such as autism.[1] Both approaches contribute to confusion about the term, because the term PDD actually refers to a category of disorders and is not a diagnostic label.[1]

PDD-NOS and terminologyEdit

PDD-NOS is often incorrectly referred to as simply “PDD.” The term PDD refers to the class of conditions to which the five disorders belong to. PDD is not itself a diagnosis, while PDD-NOS is a diagnosis. To further complicate the issue, PDD-NOS can also be referred to as “atypical personality development,” “atypical PDD,” or “atypical Autism”.

Because of the "NOS", which means "not otherwise specified", it is hard to describe what PDD-NOS is, other than it being an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some people diagnosed with PDD-NOS are close to having Asperger syndrome, but do not quite fit. Others have near full fledged autism, but without some of its symptoms. The psychology field is considering creating several subclasses within PDD-NOS.

SymptomsEdit

Symptoms of PDD may include communication problems such as:

  • Difficulty using and understanding language
  • Difficulty relating to people, objects, and events; for example, lack of eye contact or pointing behavior
  • Unusual play with toys and other objects
  • Difficulty with changes in routine or familiar surroundings
  • Repetitive body movements or behavior patterns

Types and degreesEdit

Autism, a developmental neurological disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication skills, and limited range of activities and interests, is the most characteristic and best studied PDD. Other types of PDD include Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett syndrome, and PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).

Children with PDD vary widely in abilities, intelligence, and behaviors. Some children do not speak at all, others speak in limited phrases or conversations, and some have relatively normal language development. Repetitive play skills and limited social skills are generally evident as well. Unusual responses to sensory information – loud noises, lights – are also common.

DiagnosisEdit

Diagnosis is usually done during early childhood. Some clinicians use PDD-NOS as a "temporary" diagnosis for children under the age of 5, when for whatever reason there is a reluctance to diagnose autism. There are several justifications for this: very young children have limited social interaction and communication skills to begin with, therefore it can be tricky to diagnose milder cases of autism in toddlerhood. The unspoken assumption is that by the age of 5, unusual behaviors will either resolve or develop into diagnosable autism. However, some parents view the PDD label as no more than a euphemism for autism spectrum disorders, problematic because this label makes it more difficult to receive aid for Early Childhood Intervention.

Cure and careEdit

There is no known cure for PDD. Medications are used to address certain behavioral problems; therapy for children with PDD should be specialized according to the child's specific needs. Some children with PDD benefit from specialized classrooms in which the class size is small and instruction is given on a one-to-one basis. Others function well in standard special education classes or regular classes with support. Early intervention, including appropriate and specialized educational programs and support services play a critical role in improving the outcome of individuals with PDD. PDD is very commonly found in individuals and especially in children with the range of 2 to 5 years of age. These signs can be easily detected within the classroom settings, home, etc.

Many diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder see the conditions as a difference, and not as a disorder which needs to be "cured".

See alsoEdit


ReferenceEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (October 2003) Disability Info: Pervasive Developmental Disorders (FS20). Fact Sheet 20 (FS20)
  2. Lord C, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, Amaral DG (2000). Autism spectrum disorders. Neuron 28 (2): 355–63.
  3. Johnson CP, Myers SM, Council on Children with Disabilities (2007). Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics 120 (5): 1183–215.

GeneralEdit


External linksEdit


Note: An earlier version of this article included text from the public domain source "NINDS Pervasive Developmental Disorders Information Page" at [4]



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