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Refers to the use of detailed diagnostic information to guide medical therapy. For example, information such as a patient's genotype or level of gene expression is used to select a medication or therapy that specifically matches that genotype or gene expression level. Since different patients have different genotypes and gene expression levels, each patient can receive a therapy that is personalized rather than all patients receiving the same generic therapy. The term, personalized medicine, emerged in the late 1990's with progress in the Human Genome Project. Some of the earliest personalized medicines were Herceptin and Gleevec.