Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Personality disorders

Talk0
34,142pages on
this wiki

Redirected from Personality Disorder

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Clinical: Approaches · Group therapy · Techniques · Types of problem · Areas of specialism · Taxonomies · Therapeutic issues · Modes of delivery · Model translation project · Personal experiences ·


Personality disorders form a class of mental disorders that are characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and actions. Because of the inflexibility and pervasiveness of these patterns, they can cause serious problems and impairment of functioning for the persons who are afflicted with these disorders.

Personality disorders are seen by the American Psychiatric Association as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it. These patterns are inflexible and pervasive across many situations. The onset of the pattern can be traced back at least to the beginning of adulthood. To be diagnosed as a personality disorder, a behavioral pattern must cause significant distress or impairment in personal, social, and/or occupational situations.

DSM criteriaEdit

Personality disorders are noted on Axis II of the diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, or DSM-IV-TR as it is currently in its fourth edition with a text revision). (Note: Mental Retardation is also noted on Axis II).

General diagnostic criteriaEdit

To make a diagnosis of a personality disorder, these criteria must be satisfied in addition to the specific criteria listed under the individually named personality disorders.


A. Experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. This pattern is manifested in two (or more) of the following areas:

  1. cognition (perception and interpretation of self, others and events)
  2. affect (the range, intensity, lability, and appropriateness of emotional response)
  3. interpersonal functioning
  4. impulse control

B. The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations.

C. The enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

D. The pattern is stable and of long duration and its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or early adulthood.

E. The enduring pattern is not better accounted for as a manifestation or consequence of another mental disorder.

F. The enduring pattern is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition such as head injury.

People under 18 years old who fit the criteria of a personality disorder are usually not diagnosed with such a disorder, although they may be diagnosed with a related disorder. Antisocial personality disorder cannot be diagnosed at all in persons under 18.

List of DSM personality disordersEdit

The DSM-IV lists ten personality disorders, which are grouped into three clusters:

Cluster A (odd or eccentric disorders)Edit

Cluster B (dramatic, emotional, or erratic disorders)Edit

Cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders)Edit

The DSM-IV also contains a category for behavioural patterns that do not match these ten disorders, but nevertheless have the characteristics of a personality disorder; this category is labeled Personality Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified). The previous version of the DSM also contained the Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder and the Self-Defeating Personality Disorder. Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder is a pattern of negative attitudes and passive resistance in interpersonal situations. Self-defeating personality disorder is characterised by behaviour that consequently undermines the person's pleasure and goals. These categories were removed in the current version of the DSM, because it is questionable whether these are separate disorders. Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder and Depressive personality disorder were placed in an appendix of DSM-IV for research purposes. Sadomasochistic personality may be included here.

List of personality disorders defined in ICD-10 (F60-F69) Edit

Revisions and exclusions from past DSM editionsEdit

The revision of the previous edition of the DSM, DSM-III-R, also contained the Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder, the Self-Defeating Personality Disorder, and the Sadistic Personality Disorder. Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder is a pattern of negative attitudes and passive resistance in interpersonal situations. Self-defeating personality disorder is characterised by behaviour that consequently undermines the person's pleasure and goals. Sadistic Personality Disorder is a pervasive pattern of cruel, demeaning, and aggressive behavior. These categories were removed in the current version of the DSM, because it is questionable whether these are separate disorders. Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder and Depressive personality disorder were placed in an appendix of DSM-IV for research purposes.[How to reference and link to summary or text]


Controversy over definitionsEdit

The DSM attempts to represent a consensus view of the members of the American Psychiatric Association. However, more so than in other parts of the DSM, the classification of Axis II personality disorders—deeply ingrained, maladaptive, lifelong behaviour patterns—has come under sustained and serious criticism from its inception

Main article: Personality disorder - Definition problem

HistoryEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - History


Biological approachesEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - Biological perspective
Main article: Personality disorder - Genetic perspective
Main article: Personality disorder - Evolutionary perspective


Theoretical approachesEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - Theoretical approaches

Developmental aspectEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - Developmental perspective

EpidemiologyEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - Epidemiology

Risk factorsEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - Risk factors

CausesEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - Etiology

ComorbidityEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - Comorbidity

AssessmentEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - Assessment

TreatmentEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - Treatment

User informationEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - User information

Carer informationEdit

Main article: Personality disorder - For their carers


See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

Key texts – BooksEdit

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. (text revision). (DSM-IV-TR). Arlington, VA.
  • Marshall, W. & Serin, R. (1997) Personality Disorders. In Sm.M. Turner & R. Hersen (Eds.) Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis. New York: Wiley. 508-541
  • Millon, Theodore (and Roger D. Davis, contributor) - Disorders of Personality: DSM IV and Beyond - 2nd ed. - New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1995 ISBN 0-471-01186-X

Additional material – BooksEdit

Key texts – PapersEdit

  • National Institute for Mental Health of England (2003).Personality disorder: No longer a diagnosis of exclusion. London: Department of Health.
  • NIMHE (2003) training guidelines: Breaking the Cycle of Rejection: The Personality Disorder Capabilities Framework.London: Department of Health.

Additional material - PapersEdit

  • Google Scholar
  • Ausubel, D.P. (1961) Personality disorder as disease,American Psychologist 16: 69-74.



External linksEdit

External linksEdit

Instructions_for_archiving_academic_and_professional_materials Personality disorder: Academic support materials


Personality Disorder
Personality disorder | Psychopathy 

DSM-IV Personality Disorders

Cluster A (Odd) - Schizotypal, Schizoid, Paranoid
Cluster B (Dramatic) - Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Cluster C (Anxious) - Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant
Personality disorder not otherwise specified
Assessing Personality Disorder
MCMI | MMPI | Functional assessment
Treating Personality Disorder
DBT | CBT | Psychotherapy |Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy
Prominent workers in Personality Disorder
Millon | Linehan

DSM-IV Personality Disorders edit

Cluster A (Odd) - Schizotypal, Schizoid, Paranoid
Cluster B (Dramatic) - Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Cluster C (Anxious) - Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant




This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki