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A perlocutionary act is any speech act that amounts to persuading, convincing, scaring, enlightening, inspiring, or otherwise getting someone to do or realize something.
Unlike illocutionary acts, which stress some linguistic performance, a perlocutionary act's effect is in some sense external to the performance. It may be thought of, in a sense, as the effect of the locutionary act. Therefore, when examining perlocutionary acts, the effect on the hearer or reader is emphasized.