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Pemoline chemical structure
| CAS number |
| ATC code |
| PubChem |
| DrugBank |
|Molecular weight||176.172 g/mol|
|Bioavailability||50% bound to plasma proteins|
|Elimination half-life||12 hours|
|Pregnancy category||B U.S.|
|Legal status||Schedule IV (United States)</br>Schedule IV (Canada)</br>Lista II (Argentina)|
|Routes of administration||Oral|
Pemoline has some advantages over other stimulants in that it does not reduce the appetite or cause dry mouth. However, in some patients Pemoline is suspected of causing hepatotoxicity, so regular liver tests are performed on those treated with it. Since receiving FDA approval in 1975, it has been linked with 21 cases of liver failure, of which 13 resulted in liver replacement or death. In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) withdrew approval for pemoline due to pressure from certain public advocacy groups, including Public Citizen. The patient support group "Narcolepsy Network"  tried to persuade the FDA not to ban it, on the grounds that some patients find all other treatments ineffective or to have dehabilitating side effects. The medication was used by an estimated 10,000 Americans afflicted with narcolepsy. A more potent analogue of pemoline, 4-methylaminorex has appeared as a black market drug with abuse potential similar to methamphetamine.
In March 2005, Abbott Laboratories (Cylert® marketer) had discontinued the production of Cylert arguing economic reasons.
- Pemoline monograph at HealthyPlace.com
- AScribe Newswire press release about the withdrawal.
- Cylert Discontinued Press Release
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