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Pedunculopontine nucleus

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Brain: Pedunculopontine nucleus
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[[Image:|250px|center|]]
Latin nucleus tegmentalis pedunculopontinus
Gray's subject #
Part of
Components
Artery
Vein
BrainInfo/UW hier-495
MeSH [1]

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) (or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, PPTN or PPTg) is located in the brainstem, caudal to the substantia nigra and adjacent to the superior cerebellar peduncle. It has two divisions, one containing cholinergic neurons, the pars compacta, and one containing mostly glutamatergic neurons, the pars dissipata. The PPN is one of the main components of the reticular activating system.[1][2]

ProjectionsEdit

PPN neurons project axons to a wide range of areas in the brain [2], particularly parts of the basal ganglia such as the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars compacta, and globus pallidus internus. It also send them to targets in the thalamus, cerebellum, basal forebrain, and lower brainstem, and in the cerebral cortex, the supplementary motor area and somatosensory and motor cortices.[1][2][3]

It receives inputs from many areas of the brain [3], including the basal gangla to which it projects with the exception of the substantia nigra pars compacta to which it projects but does not receive, while it receives but does not project to the substantia nigra pars reticulata.[1][2]

FunctionsEdit

The PPN is involved in many functions, including arousal, attention, learning, reward, and voluntary limb movements and locomotion.[4] While once thought important to the initiation of movement, recent research suggests a role in providing sensory feedback to the cerebral cortex.[4] It is also implicated in the generation and maintenance of REM sleep.

[4]

Parkinson diseaseEdit

Research is being done on whether deep brain stimulation of the PPN might be used to improve the gait and postural difficulties found in Parkinson disease.[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Garcia-Rill E. (1991). The pedunculopontine nucleus. Prog Neurobiol. 36(5):363-89. PMID 1887068
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Winn P. (2006). How best to consider the structure and function of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: evidence from animal studies. J Neurol Sci. 25;248(1-2):234-50. PMID 16765383
  3. Aravamuthan BR, Muthusamy KA, Stein JF, Aziz TZ, Johansen-Berg H. (2007). Topography of cortical and subcortical connections of the human pedunculopontine and subthalamic nuclei. Neuroimage. 37(3):694-705. PMID 17644361
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Tsang EW, Hamani C, Moro E, Mazzella F, Poon YY, Lozano AM, Chen R. (2010). Involvement of the human pedunculopontine nucleus region in voluntary movements. Neurology. 14;75(11):950-9.
    1. REDIRECT Template:Doi
    PMID 20702790


External linksEdit


Mesencephalon (midbrain)

cerebral peduncle: midbrain tegmentum (periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmentum, nucleus raphe dorsalis), pretectum, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, medial longitudinal fasciculus, medial lemniscus, rubrospinal tract, lateral lemniscus

tectum: corpora quadrigemina, inferior colliculi, superior colliculi

cerebral aqueduct: oculomotor nucleus, trochlear nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus

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