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Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

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The PPVT-III is an untimed, individual assessment of receptive vocabulary, orally administered in 11 to 12 minutes or less. Extensively revised, this test measures an individual's receptive (hearing) vocabulary for Standard American English. In addition, it provides a quick estimate of verbal ability or scholastic aptitude. Specifically, the PPVT-III can also be used for assessing the English vocabulary of non-English-speaking individuals and assessing adult verbal ability. Two parallel forms (IIIA and IIIB) can be used for testing and retesting. No reading is required by the client, and scoring is rapid and objective. Item responses are made by pointing or multiple choice selection, dependent upon the subject's age. The total score can be converted to a percentile rank, mental age, or a standard deviation IQ score. No special training is required to administer, score, or interpret the PPVT-III.

The national norms of the PPVT-III have been extended to include ages 2-6 to 90+ years of age. This edition also was developed from adult norms obtained on 828 persons ages 19 to 40 selected to be nationally representative of geographical regions and major occupational groups. No people with handicaps were included in the norm population. A technical supplement gives detailed standardization data.

The PPVT-III provides an estimate of the client's verbal intelligence and has been administered to groups who had reading or speech problems, had mental retardation, or were emotionally withdrawn. Because the manner of the client's response to stimulus vocabulary is to point in any fashion to one of four pictures that best fits the stimulus work, these tests also apply to rehabilitation clients who have multiple physical impairments, but whose hearing and vision are intact. The test also has high interest value, and this can establish good rapport with the client. For its administration, the examiner presents a series of pictures to each client. There are four pictures to a page, and each is numbered. The examiner states a word describing one of the pictures and asks the client to point to or say the number of the picture that the word describes.

The test is not useful in its present form for blind and deaf people, but can be useful for people with mental retardation, for whom no modifications in instructions or format are needed. The only possible problem is that the illustrations for about the first 50 items often use children. These may not be acceptable to the adult with mental retardation.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

BooksEdit

  • Altepeter, T. S. (1988). An investigation of the construct validity of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised. Altepeter, Thomas S : St Louis U, MO, US.
  • Berry, G. M. (1978). An investigation of the item ordering of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test by sex and race. Berry, Grant M : U Connecticut.
  • Billings, L. R. (1989). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised: Adult alternate form reliability and comparisons with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised and Wide Range Achievement Test--Revised. Billings, Leonard R : U San Francisco, CA, US.
  • Church, R. W. (1986). An investigation of the value of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised and the Slosson Intelligence Test as screening instruments for the Fourth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Church, Rex W : Ball State U.
  • Conoley, C. A. (2004). Differential item functioning in the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Third Edition: Partial correlation versus expert judgment. Conoley, Colleen Adele: Texas A&M U , US.
  • Guzman, M. D. (1977). A comparative study of the WISC-Revised, the Spanish WISC (Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler Para Ninos), PPVT (English version), PPVT (Spanish version), and the CMMS on Mexican-American children. Guzman, Maria D : Texas Woman's U.
  • Knipp, V. R. (1990). Socioeconomic class influences on children's PPVT--R, WISC--R, and TOLD--P scores. Knipp, Vivian R : St Louis U, MO, US.
  • Miller, M. S. (1992). Sign language iconicity and test construction theory for deaf individuals. Miller, Margery S : Georgetown U, Washington, DC, US.
  • Miller, P. (1991). Use of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised (PPVT--R) with individuals with severe speech and motor impairment: Effect of response mode on test results. Miller, Patricia: U Kansas, US.
  • Newcomer, B. F. (1972). A comparison of word errors made on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test by selected kindergarten, first and second grade students of differing socio-economic groups. Newcomer, Breeze F : U Southern California.
  • Nunn, P. G. (1983). Differential diagnosis of language disorders in children. Nunn, Pamela G : Southern Illnois U, Carbondale.
  • Tarnowski, K. J., & Kelly, P. A. (1987). Utility of the PPVT-R for pediatric intellectual screening. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 12(4), 611-614.
  • Taylor, B. A. (1993). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised as a measure of intellectual functioning among the adult mentally retarded. Taylor, Bryan Alexander: Texas Southern U, US.
  • Teich, H. E. (1976). Practice effects on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: An investigation of uncontrolled coaching and other factors. Teich, Henry E : U South Carolina.
  • Terrell, S. L. (1979). Performance of Black and White children on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test as a function of race of examiner and type of social reinforcer administered. Terrell, Sandra L : U Pittsburgh.

PapersEdit

  • Abkarian, G., King, P. R., & Krappes, T. L. (1987). Enhancing interaction in a difficult-to-test child: The PPVT-TV technique. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20(5), 268-269.
  • Altepeter, T. (1985). Use of the PPVT--R for intellectual screening with a preschool pediatric sample. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 10(2), 195-198.
  • Altepeter, T., & Handal, P. J. (1985). A factor analytic investigation of the use of the PPVT--R as a measure of general achievement. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41(4), 540-543.
  • Altepeter, T., & Handal, P. J. (1986). Use of the PPVT--R for intellectual screening with school-aged children: A caution. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 4(2), 145-154.
  • Altepeter, T. S. (1989). The PPVT--R as a measure of psycholinguistic functioning: A caution. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(6), 935-941.
  • Altepeter, T. S., & Johnson, K. A. (1989). Use of the PPVT--R for intellectual screening with adults: A caution. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 7(1), 39-45.
  • Appelbaum, A. S., & Tuma, J. M. (1977). Social class and test performance: Comparative validity of the Peabody with the WISC and WISC-R for two socioeconomic groups. Psychological Reports, 40(1), 139-145.
  • Argulewicz, E. N., & Abel, R. (1984). Internal evidence of bias in the PPVT-R for Anglo-American and Mexican-American children. Journal of School Psychology, 22(3), 299-303.
  • Argulewicz, E. N., Anderson, C. C., & Bingenheimer, L. T. (1983). Alternate form reliability of the PPVT-R for Anglo American and Mexican American school children. Educational & Psychological Research, 3(1), 19-24.
  • Argulewicz, E. N., Bingenheimer, L. T., & Anderson, C. C. (1983). Concurrent validity of the PPVT-R for Anglo-American and Mexican-American students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 1(2), 163-167.
  • Argulewicz, E. N., & Kush, J. C. (1983). Equivalence of Forms L and M of the PPVT-R for use with Anglo-American and Mexican-American learning disabled students. Psychological Reports, 52(3), 827-830.
  • Atlas, J., & Miller, A. (1992). Responses of conduct-disordered versus psychotic adolescents to PPVT--R items of human versus nonhuman content. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75(3, Pt 1), 737-738.
  • Atlas, J. A. (1986). Responses of emotionally disturbed children to PPVT--R items of human versus nonhuman content: Extension of Shipe, Cromwell, and Dunn. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63(2, Pt 2), 863-866.
  • Atlas, J. A., & Fortunato, M. (1990). Responses of psychotic adolescents to PPVT--R items of human versus nonhuman content. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71(1), 194.
  • Atlas, J. A., Fortunato, M., & Lavin, V. (1990). Stability and concurrent validity of the PPVT--R in hospitalized psychotic adolescents. Psychological Reports, 67(2), 554.
  • Baer, R. D. (1979). Effects of reinforcement on intelligence test behavior as a function of test administered and sex of subject. Baer, Richard D : Utah State U.
  • Ball, D. W., Payne, J. S., & Hallahan, D. P. (1973). Factorial composition of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test with Head Start children. Psychological Reports Vol 32(1) Feb 1973, 12-14.
  • Barrett, C. A., & Nicholls, J. G. (1978). Motivational factors in the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: Performance of New Zealand children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 9(3), 349-357.
  • Baum, D. D., & Abelson, A. (1981). Comparison of Slosson and Peabody IQs among White kindergarten children. Psychological Reports, 48(3), 754.
  • Beck, A. R., & Pirovano, C. M. (1996). Facilitated communicators' performance on a task of receptive language. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26(5), 497-512.
  • Beck, F. W., & Black, F. L. (1986). Comparison of PPVT--R and WISC--R in a mild/moderate handicapped sample. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62(3), 891-894.
  • Beck, F. W., Black, F. L., & Doles, J. (1985). The concurrent validity of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised relative to the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45(3), 705-710.
  • Bell, N. L., Lassiter, K. S., Matthews, T., & Hutchinson, M. B. (2001). Comparison of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Third Edition and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition with university students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(3), 417-422.
  • Berman, S., Friedman, D., Hamberger, M., & Snodgrass, J. G. (1989). Developmental picture norms: Relationships between name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity for child and adult ratings of two sets of line drawings. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 21(3), 371-382.
  • Bing, J. R., & Bing, S. B. (1984). Alternate-form reliability of the PPVT-R for Black Head Start preschoolers. Psychological Reports, 54(1), 235-238.
  • Bing, S. B., & Bing, J. R. (1984). Concurrent validity of the PPVT--R for college students. Psychological Reports, 55(3), 863-866.
  • Bing, S. B., & Bing, J. R. (1985). Comparison of the K-ABC and PPVT--R with Head Start children. Psychology in the Schools, 22(3), 245-249.
  • Bochner, S. (1978). Reliability of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: A review of 32 selected research studies published between 1965 and 1974. Psychology in the Schools, 15(3), 320-327.
  • Bordogna, M., Forcucci, R. A., & Carlin, J. (1978). Variability in test scores of Forms A and B of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test derived from sampling a first-grade population. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 9(2), 109-117.
  • Bracken, B. A., & Murray, A. M. (1984). Stability and predictive validity of the PPVT-R over an eleven month interval. Educational & Psychological Research, 4(1), 41-44.
  • Bracken, B. A., & Prasse, D. P. (1981). Comparison of the PPVT, PPVT-R, and intelligence tests used for the placement of Black, White and Hispanic EMR students. Journal of School Psychology, 19(4), 304-311.
  • Bracken, B. A., & Prasse, D. P. (1983). Concurrent validity of the PPVT-R for "at risk" preschool children. Psychology in the Schools, 20(1), 13-15.
  • Bracken, B. A., Prasse, D. P., & McCallum, R. (1984). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised: An appraisal and review. School Psychology Review, 13(1), 49-60.
  • Breen, M. J. (1981). Comparison of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised for a referred population. Psychological Reports, 49(3), 717-718.
  • Breen, M. J. (1983). A correlational analysis between the PPVT-R and Woodcock-Johnson achievement cluster scores for nonreferred regular education and learning disabled students. Psychology in the Schools, 20(3), 295-297.
  • Breen, M. J., & Siewert, J. C. (1983). Comparison of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised for learning-disabled and referred students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 1(1), 95-99.
  • Bucik, N., & Bucik, V. (2003). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III): Psychometric properties and significance for application. Psiholoska Obzorja/Horizons of Psychology, 12(4), 91-108.
  • Burns, E., Peterson, D., & Bauer, L. (1974). The concurrent validity of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test. Training School Bulletin Vol 70(4) Feb 1974, 221-223.
  • Byrne, J. M., Dywan, C. A., & Connolly, J. F. (1995). Assessment of children's receptive vocabulary using event-related brain potentials: Development of a clinically valid test. Child Neuropsychology, 1(3), 211-223.
  • Campbell, J. M., Bell, S. K., & Keith, L. K. (2001). Concurrent validity of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition as an intelligence and achievement screener for low SES African American children. Assessment, 8(1), 85-94.
  • Candler, A. C., Maddux, C. D., & Johnson, D. L. (1986). Relationship of scores on PPVT--R and WISC--R with special education children and youth. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62(2), 417-418.
  • Cartwright, L. R., & Lass, N. J. (1974). A comparative study of children's performance on the Token Test, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Acta Symbolica, 5(1), 19-29.
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  • Carvajal, H., Hayes, J. E., Miller, H. R., Wiebe, D. A., & et al. (1993). Comparisons of the vocabulary scores and IQs on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76(1), 28-30.
  • Carvajal, H., McKnab, P., Gerber, J., Hewes, P., & et al. (1989). Counseling college-bound students: Can ACT scores be predicted? School Counselor, 36(3), 186-191.
  • Carvajal, H., McVey, S., Sellers, T., Weyand, K., & et al. (1987). Relationships between scores on the General Purpose Abbreviated Battery of Stanford-Binet IV, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised, Columbia Mental Maturity Scale, and Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test. Psychological Record, 37(1), 127-130.
  • Carvajal, H., Shaffer, C., & Weaver, K. A. (1989). Correlations of scores of maximum security inmates on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised. Psychological Reports, 65(1), 268-270.
  • Carvajal, H. H., Parks, J. P., Logan, R. A., & Page, G. L. (1992). Comparisons of the IQ and Vocabulary scores on Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised. Psychology in the Schools, 29(1), 22-24.
  • Champion, T. B., Hyter, Y. D., McCabe, A., & Bland-Stewart, L. M. (2003). "A Matter of Vocabulary": Performances of Low-Income African American Head Start Children on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 24(3), 121-127.
  • Chavez, E. L. (1982). Analysis of a Spanish translation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 54(3, Pt 2), 1335-1338.
  • Childers, J. S., Durham, T. W., & Wilson, S. (1994). Relation of performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised among preschool children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79(3, Pt 1), 1195-1199.
  • Choong, J., & McMahon, J. (1983). Comparison of scores obtained on the PPVT and the PPVT-R. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 48(1), 40-43.
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  • Concannon, S. (1975). Comparison of the Stanford-Binet Scale with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Journal of Educational Research, 69(3), 104-105.
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  • Covin, T. M. (1976). Alternate form reliability of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Psychological Reports, 39(3, Pt 2), 1286.
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  • Covin, T. M. (1976). Correlations between the Pintner, Otis-Lennon, Peabody, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Revised. Psychological Reports, 39(3, Pt 2), 1058.
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