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Social Processes: Methodology · Types of test

The Patient Health Questionaire (PHQ-9) is adapted from PRIME MD TODAY, developed by Drs Robert L. Spitzer, Janet B.W. Williams, Kurt Kroenke, and colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc. It derives from the depression section and covers each of the 9 DSM-IV criteria.

It can be used as a quick screening tool for depression and has been validated for use in primary care(Dietrich 2003).

The test is available for download but should only be adminisered in accordance with the Terms of Use available at

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit



  • Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. (2001) The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med.;16(9):606-13.
  • Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:606-613.
  • Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-15: Validity of a new measure for evaluating somatic symptom severity. Psychosom Med 2002;64:258-266.
  • Kroenke K, Spitzer RL. The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric Annals 2002;32:509-521. [also includes validation data on PHQ-8]
  • Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 : validity of a two-item depression screener. Med Care 2003; 41:1284-1292.
  • Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Monahan PO, Löwe B. Anxiety disorders in primary care: prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Ann Intern Med 2007 (in press). [also includes additional validation data on GAD-7 and GAD-2]
  • Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Löwe B. An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: the PHQ-4. Under review.
  • Löwe B, Kroenke K, Herzog W, Gräfe K. Measuring depression outcome with a short self-report instrument: sensitivity to change of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). J Affective Disorders 2004;78:131-140.
  • Löwe B, Unutzer J, Callahan CM, Perkins AJ, Kroenke K. Monitoring depression treatment outcomes with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Med Care 2004;42:1194-1201.
  • X AJ, Oxman TE, Burns MR, Winchell CW, Chin T. (2003). Application of a depression management office system in community practice: a demonstration. J Am Board Fam Pract.;16(2):107-14.
  • Pinto-Meza A, Serrano-Blanco A, Penarrubia MT, Blanco E, Haro JM. (2005).Assessing depression in primary care with the PHQ-9: can it be carried out over the telephone? J Gen Intern Med.;20(8):738-42.
  • Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, for the Patient Health Questionnaire Primary Care Study Group. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ Primary Care Study. JAMA 1999;282:1737-1744.
  • Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Kroenke K, et al. Validity and utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in assessment of 3000 obstetrics-gynecologic patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183:759-769
  • Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1092-1097.

Additional materialEdit



External linksEdit

copy of the form for download

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