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The paternal age effect describes the influence that a father's age has on the chances of conferring a genetic defect to his offspring. Generally, older men have a greater probability of fathering children with a genetic defect than younger men do. This is seen as likely due to genetic copying errors which may increase in number after repeated spermatogenesis cycles over a man's lifetime.
Achondroplasia (dwarfism); craniofacial disorders such as Apert syndrome and Crouzon Syndrome; mental retardation of unknown etiologies; autism; bipolar disorder; and 25% of schizophrenia cases are correlated with advanced paternal age.
Other disorders, of interest to psychologists, related to advanced paternal age are:
- Retinitis pigmentosa
- Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
- Bilateral retinoblastoma
- Multiple exostoses
- Marfan Syndrome
- Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
- Pfeiffer Syndrome
- Wardenburg Syndrome
- Treacher-Collins Syndrome
- Soto’s basal cell nevus
- Cleidocranial dysostosis
- Polyposis coli
- Oculodentodigital syndrome
- Costello syndrome
- Recklinghausen’s neurofibromatosis
- Tuberous sclerosis
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Hemophilia A
- Duchenne muscular dystrophy
- Athetoid Cerebral Palsy
- Dystonic Cerebral Palsy
- Congenital Hemiplegia
- Down syndrome
- Bipolar disorder
- Crow JF (1997). The high spontaneous mutation rate: Is it a health risk?. PNAS 94: 8380–6.
- Bertram L, Busch R, Spiegl M, Lautenschlager NT, Müller U, Kurz A (1998). Paternal age is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease in the absence of a major gene. Neuroscience 1 (4): 277–80.
- Sipos A, Rasmussen F, Harrison G, Tynelius P, Lewis G, Leon DA, Gunnell D (2004). Paternal age and schizophrenia: a population based (sic) cohort study. BMJ Online.
- DNA repair activity linked to paternal age effect. University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.
- Bray I, Gunnell D, Smith GD (2006). Advanced paternal age: How old is too old?. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60: 851–3.
- Montgomery SM, Lambe M, Tomas O, Ekbom A (2004). Paternal age, family size, and risk of multiple sclerosis. Epidemiology 15 (6): 717–23.
- Reichenberg A, Gross R, Weiser M, Bresnahan M, Silverman J, Harlap S, Rabinowitz J, Shulman C, Malaspina D, Lubin G, Knobler HY, Davidson M, Susser E (2006). Advancing paternal age and autism. Archives of General Psychiatry 63 (9): 1026–32.
- Sanders L. College scientist named Ellison Senior Scholar. University of Southern California College of Letters, Arts & Sciences.
- Fisch H, Hyun G, Golden R, Hensle TW, Olsson CA, Liberson GL (2003). The influence of paternal age on down syndrome (sic). J Urol 169 (6): 2275–8.
- Rami B, Schneider U, Imhof A, Waldhör T, Schober E (1999). Risk factors for type I diabetes mellitus in children in Austria. Eur J Pediatr 158 (5): 362–6.
- Singh NP, Muller CH, Berger RE (2003). Effects of age on DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in human sperm. Fertility and sterility 80 (6): 1420–30.
- Lauritsen MB, Pedersen CB, Mortensen PB (2005). Effects of familial risk factors and place of birth on the risk of autism: a nationwide register-based study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46 (9): 963–71.
- Wohl M, Gorwood P (2007). Paternal ages below or above 35 years old are associated with a different risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. Eur Psychiatry 22 (1): 22–6.
- Schizophrenia Research Forum: Current Hypotheses.
- Choi J-Y, Lee K-M, Park SK, Noh D-Y, Ahn S-H, Yoo K-Y, Kang D (2005). Association of paternal age at birth and the risk of breast cancer in offspring: a case control study. BMC Cancer 5: 143.
- NW Andrology & Cryobank.
- Croen LA, Najjar DV, Fireman B, Grether JK (2007). Maternal and paternal age and risk of autism spectrum disorders. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161 (4): 334–40.
- Tarin JJ, Brines J, Cano A (1998). Long-term effects of delayed parenthood. Human Reproduction 13 (9): 2371–6.
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