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Parvalbumin

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parvalbumin
Symbol(s): PVALB
Locus: 22 q12 -q13.1
EC number [1]
EntrezGene 5816
OMIM 168890
RefSeq NM_002854
UniProt P20472

Parvalbumin is a calcium binding albumin protein.

It has three EF hand motifs and is structurally related to calmodulin and troponin C. Parvalbumin is localised in fast-contracting muscles, where its levels are highest, and in the brain and some endocrine tissues.

Neuronal role of parvalbumin Edit

Parvalbumin is present in GABAergic interneurons in the nervous system, predominantly expressed by chandelier and basket cells in the cortex. In the hippocampus, PV+ interneurons are subdivided into basket, axo-axonic, bistratified, and oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) cells, each subtype targeting distinct domains of pyramidal cells.[1] Parvalbumin (PV) interneurons' connections are mostly perisomatic (around the cell body of neurons). Most of the PV interneurons are fast-spiking. They are also thought to give rise to gamma waves recorded in EEG.

PV-expressing interneurons represent approximately 25% of GABA cells in the primate DLPFC.[2][3] Other calcium-binding protein markers are calretinin (most abundant subtype in DLPFC, about 50%) and calbindin. Interneurons are also divided into subgroups by the expression of neuropeptides (somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin).

Role in pathology Edit

Decreased PV and GAD67 expression was found in PV+ GABAergic interneurons in schizophrenia.[4]

PV has been identified as an allergen causing seafood allergy.[5]

References Edit

  1. Klausberger T, Marton LF, O'Neill J, Huck JH, Dalezios Y, Fuentealba P, Suen WY, Papp E, Kaneko T, Watanabe M, Csicsvari J, Somogyi P (2005). Complementary roles of cholecystokinin- and parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic neurons in hippocampal network oscillations. J. Neurosci. 25 (42): 9782–93.free full text
  2. Condé F, Lund JS, Jacobowitz DM, Baimbridge KG, Lewis DA (1994). Local circuit neurons immunoreactive for calretinin, calbindin D-28k or parvalbumin in monkey prefrontal cortex: distribution and morphology. J. Comp. Neurol. 341 (1): 95–116.
  3. Gabbott PL, Bacon SJ (1996). Local circuit neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (areas 24a,b,c, 25 and 32) in the monkey: II. Quantitative areal and laminar distributions. J. Comp. Neurol. 364 (4): 609–36.
  4. Hashimoto T, Volk DW, Eggan SM, Mirnics K, Pierri JN, Sun Z, Sampson AR, Lewis DA (2003). Gene expression deficits in a subclass of GABA neurons in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. J. Neurosci. 23 (15): 6315–26. free full text
  5. Swoboda I, Bugajska-Schretter A, Verdino P, Keller W, Sperr WR, Valent P, Valenta R, Spitzauer S (2002). Recombinant carp parvalbumin, the major cross-reactive fish allergen: a tool for diagnosis and therapy of fish allergy. J. Immunol. 168 (9): 4576–84.

External linksEdit


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