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m (Secondary parkinsonism moved to Parkinsonism over redirect: Align thesaurus)
 
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{{ClinPsy}}
 
{{ClinPsy}}
   
Secondary parkinsonism is where parkinson's -like symptoms are produced due to factors other than the disease processes underlying Parkinsons' Disease. Major reasons for secondary parkinsonism are [[stroke]], [[encephalitis]], [[narcotic]]s, [[toxins]] such as [[manganese]] or [[carbon monoxide poisoning]], traumatic brain injury, and [[normal pressure hydrocephalus]] and [[psychiatric medication]].
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{{Infobox_Disease
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| Name = {{PAGENAME}}
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| Image =
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| Caption =
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| DiseasesDB = 24212
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| ICD10 =
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| ICD9 =
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| ICDO =
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| OMIM =
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| MedlinePlus = 000759
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| eMedicineSubj =
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| eMedicineTopic =
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| MeshID =
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}}
   
Adifferential diagnosis can be facilitated by use of a [[DAT scan]].
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'''Parkinsonism''' (also known as '''Parkinson's syndrome''', '''atypical Parkinson's''', or '''secondary Parkinson's''') is a neurological [[syndrome]] characterized by [[tremor]], [[hypokinesia]], [[spasticity|rigidity]], and [[balance disorder|postural instability]].<ref name=Aminoff_2005>{{cite book | author = Aminoff MJ, Greenberg DA, Simon RP | title = Clinical Neurology | publisher = Lange: McGraw-Hill Medical | edition = 6th ed. | pages = 241–5 |year = 2005 | isbn = 0071423605 }}</ref> The underlying causes of parkinsonism are numerous, and diagnosis can be complex.<ref>{{cite journal | author = Tuite PJ, Krawczewski K | title = Parkinsonism: a review-of-systems approach to diagnosis | journal = Seminars in neurology | volume = 27 | issue = 2 | pages = 113–22 | year = 2007 | pmid = 17390256 | doi = 10.1055/s-2007-971174}}</ref> While the [[neurodegenerative]] condition [[Parkinson's disease]] (PD) is the most common cause of parkinsonism, a wide-range of other [[Etiology|etiologies]] can lead to a similar set of symptoms, including some [[toxins]], a few [[metabolic disease]]s, and a handful of non-PD neurological conditions.<ref>{{cite journal
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| author = Christine CW, Aminoff MJ
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| title = Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes: prognostic and therapeutic relevance
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| journal = Am. J. Med.
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| volume = 117
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| issue = 6 | pages = 412–9
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| year = 2004 | pmid = 15380498
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| doi = 10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.03.032
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}}</ref>
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Its most common cause is as a side effect of medications, mainly neuroleptic antipsychotics especially the [[phenothiazine]]s (such as perphenazine and chlorpromazine), [[thioxanthene]]s (such as flupenthixol and zuclopenthixol) and [[butyrophenone]]s (such as haloperidol (Haldol)), [[piperazine]]s (such as ziprasidone), and rarely, antidepressants.
   
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==Etiology==
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If PD has been excluded, the [[differential diagnosis]] or list of potential causes for this syndrome includes:
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* [[AIDS]] can sometimes lead to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, due to commonly causing dopaminergic dysfunction.<ref>{{cite journal | author = Tse W, Cersosimo MG, Gracies JM, ''et al'' | title = Movement disorders and AIDS: a review | journal = Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. | volume = 10 | issue = 6 | pages = 323–34 | year = 2004 | pmid = 15261874 | doi = 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2004.03.001}}</ref>
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* [[Corticobasal degeneration]]<ref name=Aminoff_2005/>
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* [[Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease]]<ref>{{cite journal | author = Maltête D, Guyant-Maréchal L, Mihout B, Hannequin D | title = Movement disorders and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a review | journal = Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. | volume = 12 | issue = 2 | pages = 65–71 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16364674 | doi = 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.10.004}}</ref>
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* [[Diffuse Lewy body disease]]<ref name=Aminoff_2005 />
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* Drug-induced parkinsonism (due to drugs such as [[antipsychotics]], [[metoclopramide]], [[MPTP]]<ref name=Watanabe_2005>{{cite journal | author = Watanabe Y, Himeda T, Araki T | title = Mechanisms of MPTP toxicity and their implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease | journal = Med. Sci. Monit. | volume = 11 | issue = 1 | pages = RA17–23 | year = 2005 | pmid = 15614202 | url = http://www.medscimonit.com/pub/vol_11/no_1/5333.pdf | format = PDF}}</ref>)<ref name=Aminoff_2005/>
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* [[Encephalitis lethargica]]<ref name=Aminoff_2005/>
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* [[Multiple system atrophy]]<ref>{{cite journal | author = Wenning GK, Geser F | title = Multiple system atrophy | journal = Rev. Neurol. (Paris) | volume = 159 | issue = 5 Pt 2 | pages = 3S31–8 | year = 2003 | pmid = 12773886 | doi = }}</ref>
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* [[Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration]] (Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome)<ref name=Uc_2003>{{cite journal | author = Uc EY, Rodnitzky RL | title = Childhood dystonia | journal = Seminars in pediatric neurology | volume = 10 | issue = 1 | pages = 52–61 | year = 2003 | pmid = 12785748| doi = 10.1016/S1071-9091(02)00010-4 <!--Retrieved from CrossRef by DOI bot-->}}</ref>
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* [[Progressive supranuclear palsy]]<ref name=Aminoff_2005 />
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* Toxicity due to substances such as [[carbon monoxide]],<ref name=Harrison>{{cite book | author = DeLong MR, Juncos JL | title = Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders. ''In:'' Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine | pages = p. 2414 | edition = 16th ed.| publisher = McGraw-Hill Professional | year = 2004 | isbn = 0-07-140235-7 }}</ref> [[carbon disulfide]],<ref name=Harrison/> [[Manganism|manganese]],<ref name=Harrison/> [[paraquat]],<ref>{{cite journal |author=Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Remião F, Carmo H, ''et al'' |title=Paraquat exposure as an etiological factor of Parkinson's disease |journal=Neurotoxicology |volume=27 |issue=6 |pages=1110–22 |year=2006 |pmid=16815551 |doi=10.1016/j.neuro.2006.05.012}}</ref> [[hexane]], [[rotenone]], and [[toluene]]. {{Fact|date=June 2007}}
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* Vascular parkinsonism<ref>{{cite journal | author = Thanvi B, Lo N, Robinson T | title = Vascular Parkinsonism--an important cause of parkinsonism in older people | journal = Age and ageing | volume = 34 | issue = 2 | pages = 114–9 | year = 2005 | pmid = 15713855 | doi = 10.1093/ageing/afi025 | url = http://ageing.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/34/2/114 | format = PDF}}</ref>
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* [[Wilson's disease]] is a genetic disorder in which there is an abnormal accumulation of copper. The excess copper can lead to the formation of a copper-dopamine complex, which leads to the oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Członkowska A, Tarnacka B, Möller JC, ''et al'' |title=Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale&nbsp;— a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients |journal=Neurol. Neurochir. Pol. |volume=41 |issue=1 |pages=1–12 |year=2007 |pmid=17330175 |doi=}}</ref>
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* [[Paraneoplastic syndrome]]. Neurological symptoms caused by antibodies associated with various cancers.
   
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==See also==
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*[[Apraxia]]
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*[[Bradykinesia]]
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*[[Dementia with Lewy bodies]]
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*[[Muscle contractions]]
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*[[Reflexes]]
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* [[Tremor]]
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==References==
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References
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[[Category:Nervous system disorders]]
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[[Category:Neurology]]
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[[Category:Geriatrics]]
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[[Category:Symptoms]]
   
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{{enWP|Parkinsonism}}
Web Sites
 
 
[http://infopark.uwcm.ac.uk/Infopark/patient_information/how_is_the_diagnosis_made.htm How the diagnosis is made]
 

Latest revision as of 16:49, November 25, 2008

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Parkinsonism
ICD-10
ICD-9
OMIM [1]
DiseasesDB 24212
MedlinePlus 000759
eMedicine /
MeSH {{{MeshNumber}}}


Parkinsonism (also known as Parkinson's syndrome, atypical Parkinson's, or secondary Parkinson's) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.[1] The underlying causes of parkinsonism are numerous, and diagnosis can be complex.[2] While the neurodegenerative condition Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common cause of parkinsonism, a wide-range of other etiologies can lead to a similar set of symptoms, including some toxins, a few metabolic diseases, and a handful of non-PD neurological conditions.[3] Its most common cause is as a side effect of medications, mainly neuroleptic antipsychotics especially the phenothiazines (such as perphenazine and chlorpromazine), thioxanthenes (such as flupenthixol and zuclopenthixol) and butyrophenones (such as haloperidol (Haldol)), piperazines (such as ziprasidone), and rarely, antidepressants.

EtiologyEdit

If PD has been excluded, the differential diagnosis or list of potential causes for this syndrome includes:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Aminoff MJ, Greenberg DA, Simon RP (2005). Clinical Neurology, 6th ed., 241–5, Lange: McGraw-Hill Medical.
  2. Tuite PJ, Krawczewski K (2007). Parkinsonism: a review-of-systems approach to diagnosis. Seminars in neurology 27 (2): 113–22.
  3. Christine CW, Aminoff MJ (2004). Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes: prognostic and therapeutic relevance. Am. J. Med. 117 (6): 412–9.
  4. Tse W, Cersosimo MG, Gracies JM, et al (2004). Movement disorders and AIDS: a review. Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 10 (6): 323–34.
  5. Maltête D, Guyant-Maréchal L, Mihout B, Hannequin D (2006). Movement disorders and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a review. Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 12 (2): 65–71.
  6. Watanabe Y, Himeda T, Araki T (2005). Mechanisms of MPTP toxicity and their implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease. Med. Sci. Monit. 11 (1): RA17–23.
  7. Wenning GK, Geser F (2003). Multiple system atrophy. Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 159 (5 Pt 2): 3S31–8.
  8. Uc EY, Rodnitzky RL (2003). Childhood dystonia. Seminars in pediatric neurology 10 (1): 52–61.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 DeLong MR, Juncos JL (2004). Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th ed., p. 2414, McGraw-Hill Professional.
  10. Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Remião F, Carmo H, et al (2006). Paraquat exposure as an etiological factor of Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicology 27 (6): 1110–22.
  11. Thanvi B, Lo N, Robinson T (2005). Vascular Parkinsonism--an important cause of parkinsonism in older people. Age and ageing 34 (2): 114–9.
  12. Członkowska A, Tarnacka B, Möller JC, et al (2007). Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale — a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients. Neurol. Neurochir. Pol. 41 (1): 1–12.


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