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The Parent-Child Interaction Assessment-II (PCIA-II; Holigrocki, Kaminski, & Frieswyk, 1999, 2002) is a direct observation procedure. Parents and 3- to 10-year-old children are videotaped as they play at a make-believe zoo. They are presented with a series of story stems and are asked to "Play out what happens together." Once the story creation part has finished, they complete the PCIA-II Inquiry video-recall procedure where they are shown selections from their videotape. The videotape is paused; and they are individually interviewed regarding what is happening and what each and the other are doing, thinking, feeling, and wanting. The PCIA-II takes approximately 45 minutes to administer (30 minutes for the videotaped interaction and 15 minutes for the Inquiry)
This measure is employed in research and clinical interventions with parent-child dyads. As a research tool, the PCIA-II is used to test hypotheses relevant to clinical psychology, psychiatry, and child development. Clinically, the PCIA-II is used in assessment and treatment. As a psychological assessment measure, information is obtained about parent-child relational functioning and each person's behaviors and cognitions. As a treatment, the PCIA-II is a core part of the Modifying Attributions of Parents (PCIA-II/MAP) cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (Bohr, 2005; Bohr & Holigrocki, 2005). The PCIA-II/MAP begins with the therapist reviewing a PCIA-II pre-treatment recording of the parent and child to identify competency areas as well as areas of parenting difficulties such inaccurate, dysfunctional, or negative attributions. During the intervention sessions, the clinician and parent work together to enhance strengths and recognize and change the parent’s attributions. The PCIA-II/MAP is currently being used in treatment and treatment outcome research in Ontario, Canada. A randomized controlled trial of the PCIA-II/MAP is underway with women victims of domestic violence in the USA.
Drs. Richard Holigrocki, Patricia Kaminski, Siebolt Frieswyk, George Hough, and Karen Shectman developed the PCIA between 1995 and 1997 at The Menninger Clinic and the measure was updated and revised in 2002 by the first three authors. Dr. Peter Fonagy, director of the Menninger Child and Family Program, provided consultation for the project.
Questions under investigation involve studying the influence of psychopathology of the parent or child on the other member of the dyad; the relationship between defense mechanisms, internal representations, and aggression; parenting styles; the efficacy of the PCIA-II/MAP intervention; and cross cultural comparisons between samples collected in Hong Kong and the United States.
Resources and References
Link to external web site with full text articles: PCIA-II
Bohr, Y. (2005). Infant Mental Health Programs: Experimenting with innovative models. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26(5), 407-422.
Bohr, Y. & Holigrocki, R. (2006, June). Modifying negative parental attributions through play: First step in preventing maltreatment? Poster presented at From Research to Practice: Society for Psychotherapy Research Annual Meeting, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Bohr, Y. & Holigrocki, R. J. (2005). PCIA-II/MAP Treatment Manual: Modifying Attributions of Parents intervention. Unpublished manuscript, York University and the University of Indianapolis.
Holigrocki, R. J., Hudson Crain, R., Bohr, Y. & Young, K. (2006, March). When direct observation assessment becomes treatment: Modifying the negative attributions of women victims of domestic violence. In Constance T. Fischer (Chair), Collaborative Feedback. Paper presented at the Society for Personality Assessment Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA.
Holigrocki, R. J. & Hudson-Crain, R.(2004). Victim-victimizer relational dynamics as maintained by representational, defensive, and neurobiological functioning. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 68(3), 197-212.
Holigrocki, R. J., & Kaminski, P. L. (2002). A structural and microanalytic exploration of parent-child relational psychopathology. Constructivism in the Human Sciences, 7, 111-123.
Holigrocki, R. J., Kaminski, P. L. & Frieswyk S. H. (2002). PCIA-II: Parent-Child Interaction Assessment Version II. Unpublished manuscript, University of Indianapolis. (Update of PCIA Tech. Rep. No. 99-1046. Topeka, KS: Child and Family Center, The Menninger Clinic).
Holigrocki, R. J, Kaminski, P. L., & Frieswyk, S. H. (1999). Introduction to the Parent-Child Interaction Assessment. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 63(3), 413-428.
Holigrocki, R. J. & Raches, C. M. (2006). Sequelae of child sexual abuse: A child and parent assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86(2), 131-141.
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