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In the rodent, the parasubiculum is a retrohippocampal isocortical structure, and a major component of the subicular complex. It receives numerous subcortical and cortical inputs, and sends major projections to the superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex (Amaral & Witter, 1995).

The parasubicular area is a transitional zone between the presubiculum and the entorhinal area in the mouse (Paxinos-2001), the rat (Swanson, 1998) and the primate (Zilles, 1990). Defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture, it is more similar to the presubiculum than to the entorhinal area (Zilles, 1990), however electrophysiological evidence suggests a similarity with the entorhinal cortex (Funahashi and Stewart, 1997; Glasgow & Chapman, 2007). Specifically, cells in this area are modulated by local theta rhythm, and display theta-frequency membrane potential oscillations (Glasgow & Chapman, 2007; Taube, 1995). Furthermore, cells in the parasubiculum, and neighboring presubiculum, fire in relation to the animal's location in space, suggesting properties similar to place cells. It is postulated that this area may play an integral role in spatial navigation and the integration of head-directional information (Chrobak & Buzsáki, 1994; Taube, 1995).

See alsoEdit

References Edit

  • Amaral, D. G., & Witter, M. P. (1995). "Hippocampal Formation". In G. Paxinos & C. Watson (Eds.), The rat brain in sterotaxic coordinates (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Chrobak, J. J., & Buzsáki, G. (1994). "Selective activation of deep layer (V-VI) retrohippocampal cortical neurons during hippocampal sharp waves in the behaving rat". J Neurosci, 14(10), 6160-6170.
  • Funahashi, M., & Stewart, M. (1997). "Presubicular and parasubicular cortical neurons of the rat: electrophysiological and morphological properties". Hippocampus, 1997;7(2):117-29.
  • Glasgow, S. D., & Chapman, C. A. (2007). "Local generation of theta-frequency EEG activity in the parasubiculum". J Neurophys, doi:10.1152/jn.01306.2006.
  • Taube, J. S. (1995). "Place cells recorded in the parasubiculum of freely moving rats". Hippocampus, 5(6), 569-583.
  • Zilles, K., Wree, A., and Dausch, N. D. (1990) "Anatomy of the neocortex. Neurochemical organization", In: B.F. Kolb and R.C. Tees (eds.) The Cerebral Cortex of the Rat, 113-150. MIT Press, Cambridge.

External linksEdit

  • For Neuroanatomy of this area visit BrainInfo
Telencephalon (cerebrum, cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres) - edit

primary sulci/fissures: medial longitudinal, lateral, central, parietoöccipital, calcarine, cingulate

frontal lobe: precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex, 4), precentral sulcus, superior frontal gyrus (6, 8), middle frontal gyrus (46), inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area, 44-pars opercularis, 45-pars triangularis), prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal cortex, 9, 10, 11, 12, 47)

parietal lobe: postcentral sulcus, postcentral gyrus (1, 2, 3, 43), superior parietal lobule (5), inferior parietal lobule (39-angular gyrus, 40), precuneus (7), intraparietal sulcus

occipital lobe: primary visual cortex (17), cuneus, lingual gyrus, 18, 19 (18 and 19 span whole lobe)

temporal lobe: transverse temporal gyrus (41-42-primary auditory cortex), superior temporal gyrus (38, 22-Wernicke's area), middle temporal gyrus (21), inferior temporal gyrus (20), fusiform gyrus (36, 37)

limbic lobe/fornicate gyrus: cingulate cortex/cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate (24, 32, 33), posterior cingulate (23, 31),
isthmus (26, 29, 30), parahippocampal gyrus (piriform cortex, 25, 27, 35), entorhinal cortex (28, 34)

subcortical/insular cortex: rhinencephalon, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, septum pellucidum, ependyma, internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule

hippocampal formation: dentate gyrus, hippocampus, subiculum

basal ganglia: striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen), lentiform nucleus (putamen, globus pallidus), claustrum, extreme capsule, amygdala, nucleus accumbens

Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri.

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