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Outline of neuroscience

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This is a list of terms related to neuroscience.

Cellular and molecular neuroscienceEdit

NeuroanatomyEdit

Cellular neuroanatomyEdit

NeuropharmacologyEdit

Other disciplines. (Note some overlap with previously stated disciplines)

NeurobiologyEdit

NeurophysiologyEdit

NeurochemistryEdit

NeuroendocrinologyEdit

NeurogeneticsEdit

NeuroproteomicsEdit

Cognitive neuroscienceEdit

ResearchEdit

Experimental methodsEdit

Cognitive systemsEdit

OtherEdit

NeuroethicsEdit

NeurophilosophyEdit

NeurolinguisticsEdit

Cognitive. Utilizes AI, Computational and neural modeling.


NeuroimagingEdit

Electron Cryomicroscopy (Cryo-EM) is a means of imaging neural serial sections, usually cut by a cryoultramicrotome, now at an experimental maximum (uniform) sample width-reduction of 40-60 nanometers (nm).

Tissue is often prepared in vitreous ice, preventing ice crystallization by freezing that would otherwise compromise the hereby possible near-ideal (~99%) structure-integrity. Reference Alcor.org here: [1]. Electrons are then projected at high velocity and density in a cryogenically (liquid nitrogen or helium) cooled vacuum chamber stabilized from exterior vibration through the flux of an invisible magnetic lense against the fixed target material. The pattern of electron diffusion and defraction read on a sensor-film the opposite side is interpreted as readings used to calculate preceise anatomical characteristics, which become by supercomputer manifest as a detailed digital image.

A major drawback to this technique is the threat of radiation exposure - and thus biochemical alteration - of the sample's given electron exposure intensity per square unit, time requisite for bioinformatics-retention (radiation exposure time), and the inverse proportionality of high depth-resolution to the material's superficial radition exposure/damage. Also, this is obviously an invasive procedure, meaning the specimen is of a consciousness legally, though not techically dead; for clarification on the definition of death refer to information on cryonics.

Finally, neither serial sectioning (cutting the material - in this case, the brain - into small slices of equal width) nor scanning by electron microscopy are fully automated, often requiring at least partial manual assistance that is tedious and time-consuming to the extreme, making large-scale perception and evaluation impractical given limited funding and general resources. The only exception of this is the nematode, which has the smallest brain known and has been mapped by this method completely.

Application of the attained information is of limited practical significance relative to the shortcomings of any stand-alone mechanism (as well as its resultant metadata complex therefore), and is often optimally beneficial when synthesized in hybrid with the many other imaging techniques, borrowing their appropriate specialized data-perception abilities as compensation for its own short-comings. Most commonly, these complimentary imaging operations include x-ray crystallography (x-ray), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scanning electron microscopy, and high-power/magnification light microscopy aided by one or multiple of many available and experimental staining techniques, for this purpose primarily in bath and not by injection (so as to avoid inexorable damage to the neuron so imposed upon, or literally into).

As the first of these four primary choices of examination are non-invasive they are more commonly employed, especially in psychiatric evaluation, which lacks the need present in computational neuroscience (e.g. for purposes of virtual neural circuitry as a biological prototype for artificial intelligence (A.I.) development) to image the microscopic mechanisms of, and not simply infer the macro-scale electrical and magnetic properties of the brain. However, electron transmission microscopy is the tool of choice for neuroscientists interested in high-resolution imaging of neural networks and the intracellular biochemical processes that comprise the cornerstone of their morphology, ergo the capability of learning characteristic of intelligence.

Related sciencesEdit

See alsoEdit

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