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--> The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human–computer interaction:

What is human–computer interaction? Edit

Human–computer interaction – the intersection of computer science and behavioral sciences, this field involves the study, planning, and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers. Attention to human-machine interaction is important, because poorly designed human-machine interfaces can lead to many unexpected problems. A classic example of this is the Three Mile Island accident where investigations concluded that the design of the human–machine interface was at least partially responsible for the disaster.

What type of thing is human–computer interaction? Edit

Human–computer interaction can be described as all of the following:

  • A field of science – systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[1]
    • An applied science – field that applies human knowledge to build or design useful things.
      • A field of computer science – scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.
    • An application of engineering – science, skill, and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and also build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes.
      • An application of software engineering – application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software.[2][3][4]
        • A subfield of computer programming – process of designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in one or more programming languages (such as Java, C++, C#, Python, etc.). The purpose of programming is to create a set of instructions that computers use to perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors.
    • A social science – academic discipline concerned with society and human behavior.
      • A behavioural science – discipline that explores the activities of and interactions among organisms. It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behaviour through controlled and naturalistic observation, and disciplined scientific experimentation. Examples of behavioural sciences include psychology, psychobiology, and cognitive science.
  • A type of system – set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements (often called 'components' ) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets.
    • A system that includes software – software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
  • A type of technology – making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments.

Styles of human–computer interaction Edit

Related fieldsEdit

Human–computer interaction draws from the following fields:

History of human–computer interaction Edit

History of human–computer interaction

Interaction paradigms Edit

  • Time Sharing (1957)
  • hypertext (Ted Nelson 1963), hypermedia and hyperlinks
  • Direct manipulation (ex. lightpen 1963, mice 1968)
  • Desktop metaphor (197x XEROX PARC)
  • Windows-Paradigm
  • Personal Computer (1981)
  • CSCW: Computer Supported Collaborative (or Cooperative) Work, collaborative software
  • WWW (Tim Berners Lee 1989)
  • Ubiquitous computing ("ubicomp") coined 1988
  • "sensor-based / context-aware interaction"-paradigm

Notable systems and prototypes Edit

General human–computer interaction concepts Edit

Hardware Edit

Hardware input/output devices and peripherals:

Interface design methods Edit

Usability Edit

Models and laws Edit

Human–computer interaction organizations Edit

Industrial labs and companies Edit

Industrial labs and companies known for innovation and research in HCI:

Human–computer interaction publications Edit

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Persons influential in human–computer interaction Edit

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. "... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions." —p.vii, J. L. Heilbron, (2003, editor-in-chief) The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-511229-6
  2. SWEBOK executive editors, Alain Abran, James W. Moore ; editors, Pierre Bourque, Robert Dupuis. (2004). Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge - 2004 Version, 1–1, IEEE Computer Society.
  3. ACM (2006). Computing Degrees & Careers. ACM. URL accessed on 2010-11-23.
  4. Laplante, Phillip (2007). What Every Engineer Should Know about Software Engineering, Boca Raton: CRC. URL accessed 2011-01-21.

External links Edit

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