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This bias was found to be unrelated to the number of group and non-group members individuals knew. You might think that people thought members of their own groups were more varied and different simply because they knew them better, but this is actually not the case. The outgroup homogeneity bias was found between groups such as "men" and "women" who obviously interact frequently.
- Quattrone, G. A., & Jones, E. E. (1980). The perception of variability within in-groups and out-groups: Implications for the law of small numbers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 141-152.
- Quattrone, G. A. (1986). On the perception of a group’s variability. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (eds.) Psychology of intergroup relations, 2nd ed. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
- Mullen, B. & Hu, L. (1989). Perceptions of ingroup and outgroup variability; A meta-analytic integration. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 10, 233-252.
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