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An '''otoacoustic emission''' (OAE) is a [[sound]] which is generated from within the [[inner ear]]. Having been predicted by [[Thomas Gold]] in [[1948]], their existence was first demonstrated experimentally by [[David Kemp]] in [[1978]] and they have since been shown to arise by a number of different [[cellular mechanisms]] within the [[inner ear]]. Numerous studies have shown that OAEs disappear after the inner ear has been damaged, so OAEs are often used in the laboratory and the clinic as a measure of inner ear health. Broadly speaking, there are two types of otoacoustic emissions: Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions (SOAEs) and Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (EOAEs). As their names suggest, SOAEs arise spontaneously and EOAEs require an evoking [[stimulus]].
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An '''otoacoustic emission''' (OAE) is a [[sound]] which is generated from within the [[inner ear]]. Having been predicted by [[Thomas Gold]] in 1948, its existence was first demonstrated experimentally by [[David Kemp (hearing)|David Kemp]] in 1978<ref>Kemp DT. Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system. J Acoust Soc Am. 1978;64:1386–1391, {{doi|10.1121/1.382104}}</ref> and otoacoustic emissions have since been shown to arise by a number of different cellular mechanisms within the [[inner ear]].{{Fact|date=July 2008}} Studies have shown that OAEs disappear after the inner ear has been damaged, so OAEs are often used in the laboratory and the clinic as a measure of inner ear health.
   
==Relations==
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Broadly speaking, there are two types of otoacoustic emissions: spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs), which can occur without external stimulation, and evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs), which require an evoking [[Stimulus (physiology)|stimulus]].
OAE's are considered to be related to the amplification function of the [[cochlea]]. In a the absence of external stimulation, the activity of the [[cochlear amplifier]] increases, leading to the production of sound. Several lines of evidence suggest that, in mammals, [[outer hair cells]] are the elements that enhance cochlear sensitivity and frequency selectivity and hence act as the energy sources for amplification. The outer hair cells make only token projections via afferent fibers to the central nervous system. However, they receive extensive efferent innervation, whose activation decreases cochlear sensitivity and frequency discrimination.
 
   
==Evoking OAE's==
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==Mechanism of occurrence==
OAEs are currently evoked using two different methodologies. Transient OAEs (TOAE or TrOAE) are evoked using a click (broad frequency range) stimulus. The evoked response from this type of stimulus covers the frequency range up to around 4 kHz. Distortion Product OAEs (DPOAE) are evoked using a pair of tones with particular intensity (usually either 65 - 55 dB or 65 for both) and ratio (F2/F1). The evoked response from these stimuli occurs at a third frequency; the distortion product frequency is calculated based on the original F1 and F2.
+
OAEs are considered to be related to the amplification function of the [[cochlea]]. In the absence of external stimulation, the activity of the [[cochlear amplifier]] increases, leading to the production of sound. Several lines of evidence suggest that, in mammals, [[outer hair cells]] are the elements that enhance cochlear sensitivity and frequency selectivity and hence act as the energy sources for amplification. One theory is that they act to increase the discriminability of signal variations in continuous noise by lowering the masking effect of its cochlear amplification.<ref>Lilaonitkul W, Guinan JJ Jr. (2009). Reflex control of the human inner ear: a half-octave offset in medial efferent feedback that is consistent with an efferent role in the control of masking. J Neurophysiol. 101(3):1394-406. PMID 19118109 {{doi|10.1152/jn.90925.2008}}</ref>
   
==Clinical Importance of OAE's==
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==Evoked OAEs==
Otoacoustic emissions are clinically important because they are the basis of a simple, non-invasive, test for hearing defects in newborn babies and in children who are too young to cooperate in conventional hearing tests. Many western countries now have national programmes for the universal hearing screening of newborn babies. The primary screening tool is a test for the presence of a click-evoked OAE.
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OAEs are currently evoked using three different methodologies. Stimulus Frequency OAEs (SFOAEs) are measured during the application of a pure-tone stimulus, and are detected by the vectorial difference between the stimulus waveform and the recorded waveform (which consists of the sum of the stimulus and the OAE). Transient-evoked OAEs (TEOAEs or TrOAEs) are evoked using a click (broad frequency range) or toneburst (brief duration pure tone) stimulus. The evoked response from a click covers the frequency range up to around 4 kHz, while a toneburst will elicit a response from the region that has the same frequency as the pure tone. Distortion product OAEs ([[DPOAE]]s) are evoked using a pair of primary tones <math>f_1</math> and <math>f_2</math> with particular intensity (usually either 65 - 55 dBSPL or 65 for both) and ratio (<math>f_1\mbox{ }:\mbox{ }f_2</math>). The evoked responses from these stimuli occur at frequencies (<math>f_{dp}</math>) mathematically related to the primary frequencies, with the two most prominent being <math>f_{dp}=2f_1-f_2</math> (the "cubic" distortion tone, most commonly used for hearing screening) and <math>f_{dp}=f_2-f_1</math> (the "quadratic" distortion tone, or simple [[difference tone]]).
   
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==Clinical importance==
  +
Otoacoustic emissions are clinically important because they are the basis of a simple, non-invasive, test for hearing defects in newborn babies and in children who are too young to cooperate in conventional hearing tests. Many western countries now have national programmes for the universal hearing screening of newborn babies. Periodic early childhood hearing screenings program are also utilizing OAE technology. One excellent example has been demonstrated by the Early Childhood Hearing Outreach initiative at the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management (NCHAM), Utah State University which has helped hundreds of Early Head Start programs across the United States implement OAE screening and follow-up practices in those early childhood educational settings.<ref> Eiserman, W., & Shisler, L. (2010). Identifying Hearing Loss in Young Children: Technology Replaces the Bell. Zero to Three Journal, 30, No.5, 24-28.</ref> <ref> Eiserman, W., Hartel, D., Shisler, L., Buhrmann, J., White, K., & Foust, T. (2008). Using otoacoustic emissions to screen for hearing loss in early childhood care settings. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. , 72, pp 475-482. </ref> <ref> Eiserman, W., Shisler, L., & Foust, T. (2008). Hearing screening in Early Childcare Settings. The ASHA Leader. November 4, 2008.</ref> The primary screening tool is a test for the presence of a click-evoked OAE. Otoacoustic emissions also assist in differential diagnosis of cochlear and higher level hearing losses (e.g., [[auditory neuropathy]]).
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==Biometric importance==
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In 2009, Dr Stephen Beeby of The University of Southampton, led research into utilizing otoacoustic emissions for [[biometrics|biometric]] identification. Devices equipped with a microphone could detect these subsonic emissions and potentially identify an individual, thereby providing access to the device, without the need of a traditional password. (Telegraph.co.uk, April 25, 2009, "Ear noise can be used as identification", http://www.telegraph.co.uk/scienceandtechnology/science/sciencenews/5219233/Ear-noise-can-be-used-as-identification.html). It is speculated, however, that colds, medication, trimming one's ear hair, or recording and playing back a signal to the microphone could subvert the identification process. (IEEE Spectrum Online, April 29, 2009, "Your Ear Noise as Computer Password", http://blogs.spectrum.ieee.org/riskfactor/2009/04/your_ear_noise_as_computer_pas.html)
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
*Kemp DT. ''Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system''. J Acoust Soc Am. 1978;64:1386–1391
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<references />
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==See also==
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*[[Auditory brainstem response]]
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*[[Pure tone audiometry]]
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*[[Entoptic phenomenon]]
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[[Category:Acoustics]]
 
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[[Category:Ear procedures]]
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{{Ear procedures}}
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Latest revision as of 02:14, December 25, 2011

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An otoacoustic emission (OAE) is a sound which is generated from within the inner ear. Having been predicted by Thomas Gold in 1948, its existence was first demonstrated experimentally by David Kemp in 1978[1] and otoacoustic emissions have since been shown to arise by a number of different cellular mechanisms within the inner ear.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Studies have shown that OAEs disappear after the inner ear has been damaged, so OAEs are often used in the laboratory and the clinic as a measure of inner ear health.

Broadly speaking, there are two types of otoacoustic emissions: spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs), which can occur without external stimulation, and evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs), which require an evoking stimulus.

Mechanism of occurrenceEdit

OAEs are considered to be related to the amplification function of the cochlea. In the absence of external stimulation, the activity of the cochlear amplifier increases, leading to the production of sound. Several lines of evidence suggest that, in mammals, outer hair cells are the elements that enhance cochlear sensitivity and frequency selectivity and hence act as the energy sources for amplification. One theory is that they act to increase the discriminability of signal variations in continuous noise by lowering the masking effect of its cochlear amplification.[2]

Evoked OAEsEdit

OAEs are currently evoked using three different methodologies. Stimulus Frequency OAEs (SFOAEs) are measured during the application of a pure-tone stimulus, and are detected by the vectorial difference between the stimulus waveform and the recorded waveform (which consists of the sum of the stimulus and the OAE). Transient-evoked OAEs (TEOAEs or TrOAEs) are evoked using a click (broad frequency range) or toneburst (brief duration pure tone) stimulus. The evoked response from a click covers the frequency range up to around 4 kHz, while a toneburst will elicit a response from the region that has the same frequency as the pure tone. Distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs) are evoked using a pair of primary tones f_1 and f_2 with particular intensity (usually either 65 - 55 dBSPL or 65 for both) and ratio (f_1\mbox{ }:\mbox{ }f_2). The evoked responses from these stimuli occur at frequencies (f_{dp}) mathematically related to the primary frequencies, with the two most prominent being f_{dp}=2f_1-f_2 (the "cubic" distortion tone, most commonly used for hearing screening) and f_{dp}=f_2-f_1 (the "quadratic" distortion tone, or simple difference tone).

Clinical importanceEdit

Otoacoustic emissions are clinically important because they are the basis of a simple, non-invasive, test for hearing defects in newborn babies and in children who are too young to cooperate in conventional hearing tests. Many western countries now have national programmes for the universal hearing screening of newborn babies. Periodic early childhood hearing screenings program are also utilizing OAE technology. One excellent example has been demonstrated by the Early Childhood Hearing Outreach initiative at the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management (NCHAM), Utah State University which has helped hundreds of Early Head Start programs across the United States implement OAE screening and follow-up practices in those early childhood educational settings.[3] [4] [5] The primary screening tool is a test for the presence of a click-evoked OAE. Otoacoustic emissions also assist in differential diagnosis of cochlear and higher level hearing losses (e.g., auditory neuropathy).

Biometric importanceEdit

In 2009, Dr Stephen Beeby of The University of Southampton, led research into utilizing otoacoustic emissions for biometric identification. Devices equipped with a microphone could detect these subsonic emissions and potentially identify an individual, thereby providing access to the device, without the need of a traditional password. (Telegraph.co.uk, April 25, 2009, "Ear noise can be used as identification", http://www.telegraph.co.uk/scienceandtechnology/science/sciencenews/5219233/Ear-noise-can-be-used-as-identification.html). It is speculated, however, that colds, medication, trimming one's ear hair, or recording and playing back a signal to the microphone could subvert the identification process. (IEEE Spectrum Online, April 29, 2009, "Your Ear Noise as Computer Password", http://blogs.spectrum.ieee.org/riskfactor/2009/04/your_ear_noise_as_computer_pas.html)

ReferencesEdit

  1. Kemp DT. Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system. J Acoust Soc Am. 1978;64:1386–1391, DOI:10.1121/1.382104
  2. Lilaonitkul W, Guinan JJ Jr. (2009). Reflex control of the human inner ear: a half-octave offset in medial efferent feedback that is consistent with an efferent role in the control of masking. J Neurophysiol. 101(3):1394-406. PMID 19118109 DOI:10.1152/jn.90925.2008
  3. Eiserman, W., & Shisler, L. (2010). Identifying Hearing Loss in Young Children: Technology Replaces the Bell. Zero to Three Journal, 30, No.5, 24-28.
  4. Eiserman, W., Hartel, D., Shisler, L., Buhrmann, J., White, K., & Foust, T. (2008). Using otoacoustic emissions to screen for hearing loss in early childhood care settings. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. , 72, pp 475-482.
  5. Eiserman, W., Shisler, L., & Foust, T. (2008). Hearing screening in Early Childcare Settings. The ASHA Leader. November 4, 2008.

See alsoEdit

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