Ad blocker interference detected!
Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers
Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.
Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Osmolytes are compounds affecting osmosis. They are soluble in the solution within a cell, or in the surrounding fluid, e.g. as plasma osmolytes. They play a role in maintaining cell volume and fluid balance. For example, when a cell swells due to external osmotic pressure, membrane channels open and allow efflux of osmolytes which carry water with them, restoring normal cell volume.
Natural osmolytes that can act as osmoprotectants include trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), dimethylsulfoniopropionate, trimethylglycine, sarcosine, betaine, glycerophosphorylcholine, myo-inositol, taurine and others. In humans, osmolytes are of particular importance in the renal medulla.
- Rose GD, Fleming PJ, Banavar JR, Maritan A (November 2006). A backbone-based theory of protein folding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (45): 16623–33.
- Yancey PH (August 2005). Organic osmolytes as compatible, metabolic and counteracting cytoprotectants in high osmolarity and other stresses. J. Exp. Biol. 208 (Pt 15): 2819–30.
- Holthauzen LM, Bolen DW (February 2007). Mixed osmolytes: the degree to which one osmolyte affects the protein stabilizing ability of another. Protein Sci. 16 (2): 293–8.
- Harries, Daniel, Rösgen, Jörg (2008). A Practical Guide on How Osmolytes Modulate Macromolecular Properties. Meth. Cell Bio. 84: 679–735.
- Hochachka, P.W., Somero, G. N (2002). Biochemical Adaptation. Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|