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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
An orexigenic, or appetite stimulant, is a drug, hormone, or compound that increases appetite. This can be a naturally occurring neuropeptide hormone such as ghrelin, orexin or neuropeptide Y, or a medication which increases hunger and therefore enhances food consumption. Usually appetite enhancement is considered an undesirable side effect of certain drugs as it leads to unwanted weight gain, but sometimes it can be beneficial and a drug may be prescribed solely for this purpose, especially when the patient is suffering from severe appetite loss or muscle wasting due to cystic fibrosis, anorexia, old age, cancer or AIDS. There are several widely used drugs which can cause a boost in appetite, including tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tetracyclic antidepressants, natural or synthetic cannabinoids, first-generation antihistamines, most antipsychotics and many steroid hormones.
Agents with orexigenic effects include the following:
- 5-HT2C receptor antagonists/inverse agonists – mirtazapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, amitriptyline, cyproheptadine
- H1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists – mirtazapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, amitriptyline, cyproheptadine
- Dopamine antagonists – haloperidol, chlorpromazine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine
- Adrenergic antagonists – carvedilol, propranolol; α2-adrenergic agonists – clonidine
- CB1 receptor agonists (cannabinoids – THC/dronabinol (a component of Cannabis), nabilone
- Corticosteroids – dexamethasone, prednisone, hydrocortisone
- Certain pregnene steroids – megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate
- Anabolic steroids – oxandrolone, nandrolone, testosterone
- Sulfonylurea antidiabetic drugs – glibenclamide and chlorpropamide
See also Edit
- Appetite depressing drugs
- Eating disorder
- Organic feeding disorder
- Polyphagia (or hyperphagia)
- ↑ Diepvens K, Häberer D, Westerterp-Plantenga M. Different proteins and biopeptides differently affect satiety and anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones in healthy humans.Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Mar;32(3):510-8. Epub 2007 Nov 27.PMID 18345020
- ↑ Akimoto S, Miyasaka K (July 2010). Age-associated changes of hunger-regulating peptides. Geriatrics & Gerontology International 10 Suppl 1: S107–19.
- ↑ Purnell JQ, Weyer C (2003). Weight effect of current and experimental drugs for diabetes mellitus: from promotion to alleviation of obesity. Treatments in Endocrinology 2 (1): 33–47.
- ↑ Hermansen K, Mortensen LS (2007). Bodyweight changes associated with antihyperglycaemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drug Safety : an International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience 30 (12): 1127–42.
- ↑ Maayan L, Correll CU (July 2010). Management of antipsychotic-related weight gain. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 10 (7): 1175–200.
- ↑ Strasser F, Bruera ED (June 2002). Update on anorexia and cachexia. Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America 16 (3): 589–617.
- ↑ Nasr SZ, Drury D (March 2008). use in cystic fibrosis. Pediatric Pulmonology 43 (3): 209–19.
- ↑ Morley JE (2007). Weight loss in older persons: new therapeutic approaches. Current Pharmaceutical Design 13 (35): 3637–47.
- ↑ Fox CB, Treadway AK, Blaszczyk AT, Sleeper RB (April 2009). Megestrol acetate and mirtazapine for the treatment of unplanned weight loss in the elderly. Pharmacotherapy 29 (4): 383–97.
- ↑ Holmes S (July 2009). A difficult clinical problem: diagnosis, impact and clinical management of cachexia in palliative care. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 15 (7): 320, 322–6.
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