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Oppositional defiant disorder is a psychiatric category listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where it is decribed as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures that goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior.
To meet DSM-IV-TR criteria, certain factors must be taken into account. First, the defiance must interfere with the child’s ability to function in school, home, or the community. Second, the defiance cannot be the result of another disorder, such as depression, anxiety, or the more serious Conduct Disorder. Third, the child’s problem behaviors have been happening for at least six months. The diagnostic criteria for this disorder are as follows:
- Losing temper
- Arguing with adults
- Refusing to follow the rules
- Deliberately annoying people
- Blaming others for own mistakes
- Easily annoyed
- Angry and resentful
- Spiteful or even revengeful
If the child meets at least four of these criteria, and they are interfering with the child’s ability to function, then he or she technically meets the definition of Oppositionally defiant.
The DSM-IV cites a prevalence of between 2 & 16% for ODD.
Childhood Oppositional Defiant Disorder is strongly associated with later developing Conduct Disorder. Untreated, about 52% of children with ODD will continue to meet the DSM-IV criteria up to three years later and about half of those 52% will progress into Conduct Disorder.
There are a variety of approaches to the treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). One evidence-based approach with empirical support is an approach developed by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. This approach uses a parent training model and begins by focusing on positive approaches to increase compliant behaviours. Only later in the program are methods introduced to extinguish negative or noncompliant behaviours.
The category of Oppositional defiant disorder as outlined in the DSM has attracted criticism and controversy since DSM III-R where is was established that while Oppositional defiant disorder was one of only seven categories out of more than 300 in that revision for which field trials had taken place, the results of those field trials are not reported in the DSM III-R and do not seem to be available for examination elsewhere .
In the course of trying to determine the possible extent of the effects of gender bias on the precision of categories in the DSM, Psychologist Paula J. Caplan, PHD and graduate student Kaye Lee Pantony examined whether the research confirmed the existence of such mental disorders as those represented by the labels of the categories they had chosen to study, whether research had made it possible to discover the actual elements, or criteria, of each disorder; and whether research had made it possible to discover exactly how many criteria a person had to meet in order to belong clearly to a particular category. Aiming for a wide variety of diagnoses, they chose to examine three categories that could be applied to people of either sex. One of the categories they selected was Oppositional defiant disorder.
"In view of all of that research, we were frankly amazed to find that not a single empirically based article included any evidence of what the cutoff point for any of these three categories ought to be. In other words, there was no research on which to base the DSM's prescriptions about how many criteria a person had to meet in order to be given any of those three labels: AD, ODD, or OCD. Those prescriptions cannot be said to have been derived from any scientific work whatsoever.."
They could only find seven articles that mentioned Oppositional defiant disorder at all and none of them mentioned the selection of criteria or the cutoff point for ODD.
"All told, then, there was little or no scientific evidence to justify the ways the criteria and cutoff points were chosen for a wide variety of DSM categories. It seems possible but highly unlikely that more rigorous standards were used for the categories that we happened not to study." .
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: History of the disorder.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Theoretical approaches.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Epidemiology.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Risk factors.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Etiology.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Assessment.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Comorbidity.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Treatment.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Relapse prevention
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Prognosis.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Service user page.
- Main article: Oppositional defiant disorder: Carer page.
- Attention deficit disorder
- Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
- Behavior disorders
- Bipolar disorder
- Conduct disorder
- Controversy about ADHD (details similar arguments that surround Oppositional Defiance Disorder)
References and BibliographyEdit
- ↑ The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association
- ↑ Lahey, B., & Loeber, R. (1994), Framework for a developmental model of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In D.K. Routh (Ed.) disruptive behavior disorders in childhood (pp. 139-180). NY: Plenum Press.
- ↑ Lahey, B., Loeber, R., Quay, H., Frick, P., & Grimm, J., (1992) Oppositional defiant and conduct disorders: Issues to be resolved for the DSM-IV. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 539-546.
- ↑ Barkley, R., (1997) Defiant Children: A Clinician's Manual for Assessment and Parent Training, NY: Guilford Press
- ↑ Barkley, R., & Benton, C., (1998), Your Defiant Child, NY: Guilford Press
- ↑ Barkley, R., Edwards, G., & Robin, A., (1999), Defiant Teens: A Clinician's Manual for Assessment and Family Intervention, NY: Guilford Press
- ↑ Caplan, Paula J. (1995). They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's Normal. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley pages 202-203
- ↑ Caplan, Paula J. (1995). They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's Normal. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley pages 212-213
- ↑ Caplan, Paula J. (1995). They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's Normal. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley pages 213-214
- ↑ Caplan, Paula J. (1995). They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's Normal. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley pages 215
Key texts – BooksEdit
Additional material – BooksEdit
Key texts – PapersEdit
Additional material - PapersEdit
- Mental Health.com article
- The Scotsman article
- eMedicine article
- NIH article about ODD
- Web site for parents of children with Conduct Disorders
- Song critical of ODD
Oppositional defiant disorder: Academic support materials
- Oppositional defiant disorder: Lecture slides
- Oppositional defiant disorder: Lecture notes
- Oppositional defiant disorder: Lecture handouts
- Oppositional defiant disorder: Multimedia materials
- Oppositional defiant disorder: Other academic support materials
- Oppositional defiant disorder: Anonymous fictional case studies for training
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