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{{BioPsy}}
   
 
{{Infobox Brain|
 
{{Infobox Brain|
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Image2 = Gray695.png |
 
Image2 = Gray695.png |
 
Caption2 = Transverse section of [[medulla oblongata]] below the middle of the olive. |
 
Caption2 = Transverse section of [[medulla oblongata]] below the middle of the olive. |
Width = 300 |
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IsPartOf = [[Medulla]]|
IsPartOf = |
 
 
Components = |
 
Components = |
 
Artery = |
 
Artery = |
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MeshName = Olivary+Nucleus |
 
MeshName = Olivary+Nucleus |
 
MeshNumber = A08.186.211.132.810.406.574 |
 
MeshNumber = A08.186.211.132.810.406.574 |
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DorlandsPre = o_02 |
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DorlandsSuf = 12589442 |
 
}}
 
}}
 
In [[anatomy]], the '''olivary bodies''' or simply '''olives''' (Latin ''oliva'' and ''olivae'', singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the [[medulla oblongata]], the lower portion of the [[brainstem]]. They contain the '''olivary nuclei'''.
 
In [[anatomy]], the '''olivary bodies''' or simply '''olives''' (Latin ''oliva'' and ''olivae'', singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the [[medulla oblongata]], the lower portion of the [[brainstem]]. They contain the '''olivary nuclei'''.
   
 
==External anatomy==
 
==External anatomy==
The olivary body is located on the anterior surface of the medulla lateral to the pyramid, from which it is separated by the antero-lateral sulcus and the fibers of the [[hypoglossal nerve]].
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The olivary body is located on the anterior surface of the medulla lateral to the [[Pyramid of medulla oblongata|pyramid]], from which it is separated by the [[antero-lateral sulcus]] and the fibers of the [[hypoglossal nerve]].
   
Behind, it is separated from the postero-lateral sulcus by the ventral spinocerebellar fasciculus. In the depression between the upper end of the olive and the [[pons]] lies the [[vestibulocochlear nerve]].
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Behind, it is separated from the [[postero-lateral sulcus]] by the [[ventral spinocerebellar fasciculus]]. In the depression between the upper end of the olive and the [[pons]] lies the [[vestibulocochlear nerve]].
   
It measures about 1.25 cm. in length, and between its upper end and the pons there is a slight depression to which the roots of the [[facial nerve]] are attached.
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In humans, it measures about 1.25 cm. in length, and between its upper end and the pons there is a slight depression to which the roots of the [[facial nerve]] are attached.
   
 
The external arcuate fibers wind across the lower part of the pyramid and olive and enter the inferior peduncle.
 
The external arcuate fibers wind across the lower part of the pyramid and olive and enter the inferior peduncle.
   
 
==Olivary nuclei==
 
==Olivary nuclei==
The olivary nuclei consist of the '''inferior olivary nucleus''', the '''dorsal''' and '''medial accessory olivary nuclei''', and the '''superior olivary nucleus'''.
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The olivary nuclei consist of the following nuclei:
{{BioPsy}}
 
===Inferior olivary nucleus===
 
The '''inferior olivary nucleus''' is the largest, and is situated within the olive.
 
 
It consists of a gray folded lamina arranged in the form of an incomplete capsule, opening medially by an aperture called the [[hilum]].
 
 
Emerging from the hilum are numerous fibers which collectively constitute the peduncle of the olive. The axons, also known as olivocerebellar fibers, leave the olivary nucleus, exit through the hilum, and decussate with those from the opposite olive in the raphé.
 
 
Then, as internal arcuate fibers they pass partly through and partly around the opposite olive and enter the inferior [[peduncle]] to be distributed to the cerebellar hemisphere of the opposite side from which they arise.
 
 
The fibers are smaller than the internal arcuate fibers connected with the median lemniscus. Fibers passing in the opposite direction from the [[cerebellum]] to the olivary nucleus are often described but their existence is doubtful.
 
 
Much uncertainty also exists in regard to the connections of the olive and the [[spinal cord]].
 
 
Important connections between the [[Telencephalon|cerebrum]] and the olive of the same side exist but the exact pathway is unknown.
 
   
Many collaterals from the reticular formation and from the pyramids enter the inferior olivary nucleus.
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* The [[inferior olivary nucleus]].
   
Removal of one cerebellar hemisphere is followed by atrophy of the opposite olivary nucleus.
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* The '''medial accessory olivary nucleus''' lies between the inferior olivary nucleus and the pyramid, and forms a curved [[lamina]], the concavity of which is directed laterally. The fibers of the hypoglossal nerve, as they traverse the medulla, pass between the medial accessory and the inferior olivary nuclei.
   
===Accessory olivary nuclei===
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* The '''dorsal accessory olivary nucleus''' is the smallest, and appears on transverse section as a curved lamina behind the inferior olivary nucleus.
The '''medial accessory olivary nucleus''' lies between the inferior olivary nucleus and the pyramid, and forms a curved [[lamina]], the concavity of which is directed laterally. The fibers of the hypoglossal nerve, as they traverse the medulla, pass between the medial accessory and the inferior olivary nuclei.
 
   
The '''dorsal accessory olivary nucleus''' is the smallest, and appears on transverse section as a curved lamina behind the inferior olivary nucleus.
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* The [[superior olivary nucleus]] is considered part of the [[pons]].
   
===Superior olivary nucleus===
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==Additional images==
The [[superior olivary nucleus]] is considered part of the [[pons]], and is therefore discussed in a separate article.
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<gallery>
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Image:Gray678.png|Schematic representation of the chief ganglionic categories (I to V).
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Image:Gray682.png|Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view.
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Image:Gray684.png|Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view.
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Image:Gray685.png|Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view.
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Image:Gray690.png|Deep dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view.
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Image:Gray694.png|Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive.
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Image:Gray699.png|Diagram showing the course of the arcuate fibers.
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Image:Gray700.png|The formatio reticularis of the medulla oblongata, shown by a transverse section passing through the middle of the olive.
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Image:Gray705.png|Dissection showing the projection fibers of the cerebellum.
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</gallery>
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
* {{GraySubject|187}} (primary source for article)
 
* {{GraySubject|187}} (primary source for article)
* {{BrainInfo|hier|696}} - inferior olive
 
* [http://www.neuroanatomy.wisc.edu/Bs97/TEXT/P6/overview.htm University of Wisconsin on Inferior olivary nucleus]
 
 
* {{BrainMaps|Olivary%20nucleus}}
 
* {{BrainMaps|Olivary%20nucleus}}
   
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[[Category:Brainstem]]
 
[[Category:Brainstem]]
[[Category:Medulla oblongata]]
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[[Category:Neuroanatomy]]
 
{{enWP|Olivary body}}
 
{{enWP|Olivary body}}

Latest revision as of 09:51, September 12, 2007

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Brain: Olivary body
Gray679
The medulla, showing the olivary bodies lying adjacent to the pyramids.
Gray695
Transverse section of medulla oblongata below the middle of the olive.
Latin oliva
Gray's subject #187 781
Part of Medulla
Components
Artery
Vein
BrainInfo/UW -
MeSH A08.186.211.132.810.406.574

In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. They contain the olivary nuclei.

External anatomyEdit

The olivary body is located on the anterior surface of the medulla lateral to the pyramid, from which it is separated by the antero-lateral sulcus and the fibers of the hypoglossal nerve.

Behind, it is separated from the postero-lateral sulcus by the ventral spinocerebellar fasciculus. In the depression between the upper end of the olive and the pons lies the vestibulocochlear nerve.

In humans, it measures about 1.25 cm. in length, and between its upper end and the pons there is a slight depression to which the roots of the facial nerve are attached.

The external arcuate fibers wind across the lower part of the pyramid and olive and enter the inferior peduncle.

Olivary nucleiEdit

The olivary nuclei consist of the following nuclei:

  • The medial accessory olivary nucleus lies between the inferior olivary nucleus and the pyramid, and forms a curved lamina, the concavity of which is directed laterally. The fibers of the hypoglossal nerve, as they traverse the medulla, pass between the medial accessory and the inferior olivary nuclei.
  • The dorsal accessory olivary nucleus is the smallest, and appears on transverse section as a curved lamina behind the inferior olivary nucleus.

Additional imagesEdit

External linksEdit

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

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